The physical appearance of the substrate bed changes during the process as the microorganism grows. The processes responsible for this change are described in Sect. 2.5. This section gives a "snapshot" view of the fermentation in the middle of the growth process. Of course, the substrate bed is quite complex in structure. As shown in Fig. 2.4(b), it contains a three-dimensional arrangement of substrate particles, inter-particle spaces, and microbial biomass.
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