A

residual dry substrate dry biomass

M = total mass of dry solids

X = total mass of dry biomass

W = water content (mass of water per mass of dry solids)

Fig. 22.1. (a) Strategy of operation of a water-jacketed, well-mixed, forcefully-aerated bioreactor, as modeled in the case study. (b) In Fig. 22.2, the solid and gas phases are represented in the manner as shown here. However, it must be realized that all the surface area of the particles is available for mass and heat transfer, with the area being lumped within the coefficients and not calculated separately, such that the transfer coefficients are expressed on the basis of a cubic meter of bed volume

Bioreactor wall (b)

Bioreactor wall energy balance (Tb)

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