Fig. 23.7. The importance of evaporative cooling in large-scale rotating-drum bioreactors. The predictions about the contributions to heat removal are made for scale up at a constant aeration rate in terms of vvm, as explained in Fig. 23.6. Key: (-) rate of production of waste metabolic heat; (—•—) rate of heat removal to the bioreactor wall (—□—) rate of heat removal by evaporation; (—+—) rate of heat removal by sensible energy transfer to the headspace gases

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