This chapter addresses the design and operation of SSF bioreactors under conditions where forced aeration is used but the substrate bed is not mixed. Typically these bioreactors are referred to as packed-bed bioreactors. This mode of operation is appropriate for those SSF processes in which it is not desirable to mix the substrate bed at all during the fermentation due to deleterious effects on either micro-bial growth or the physical structure of the final product.

The characteristics of this mode of operation also apply to the static phases of forcefully-aerated bioreactors that are mixed once every few hours. The operation of such bioreactors will be discussed in Chap. 10; suffice to say for the moment that during the static phase they will act as packed-bed bioreactors, and therefore the principles developed in the present chapter will apply to this static phase.

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