This chapter concerns the design and operation of SSF bioreactors under conditions where forced aeration is used and the substrate bed is mixed intermittently. These will be referred to as intermittently-mixed, forcefully-aerated bioreactors or, more simply, as intermittently-mixed bioreactors. As explained in Chap. 3, this mode of operation is appropriate for those SSF processes in which continuous mixing is not tolerated well by the microorganism, but intermittent mixing events do not have unduly deleterious effects. For much of the fermentation the bioreac-tor operates as a packed-bed bioreactor. The advantage is that the mixing event prevents the pressure drop from becoming too high within the bed and that water can be added to the bed, in a reasonably uniform manner, during the mixing event.

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