Chapter 18 presented equations for various heat and mass transfer processes. These contain various heat and mass transfer coefficients for which it is important to have reasonable values if the model is to make acceptably accurate predictions about bioreactor performance. Relatively little attention has been paid to experimental determination of transfer coefficients in SSF systems, so various of the works reported here represent data borrowed from non-SSF systems.

Note that several of the studies reported here have determined transfer coefficients on the basis of "per second", whereas other chapters have considered rates on the basis of "per hour". This presents no difficulties, since it is a simple matter to convert a value "per second" into a value "per hour", by multiplying by the conversion factor "3600 s h-1".

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