This chapter addresses the design and operation of bioreactors that are forcefully aerated and are continuously mixed during the fermentation. Note that many of the bioreactors considered in this chapter can also be operated, if desired, with intermittent mixing, with intervals of minutes to hours between mixing events. This operation will be addressed separately, in Chap. 10. The choice between continuous and intermittent mixing will depend on both the sensitivity of the organism to shear effects during mixing and the properties of the substrate particles such as their mechanical strength and stickiness.

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