SSF bioreactors are only rarely operated at large scale as packed-beds throughout the entire cultivation period, although related intermittently stirred designs have been used quite successfully (see Chap. 10). Static packed-bed operation has been used at large scale in the production of koji, although details of the operation and performance of the bioreactors involved are not available. Only very brief and general descriptions are available. A simple design (Fig. 7.5) has a capacity for 1000 kg of koji, and has no special devices for substrate handling. Also, it is not designed for fully aseptic operation (Sato and Sudo 1999).
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