Each bioreactor type has three subsystems, the bioreactor wall, the substrate bed, and the headspace gases (Fig. 4.2). The substrate bed itself may be treated as two separate phases, the solid and air phases, or it may be treated as a single pseudo-homogeneous phase with the average properties of the solid and air phases. The arrangement of the subsystems and their relative importance vary with bioreactor type. A number of heat transfer and energy storage phenomena occur within and between these subsystems.
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