Heat will be transferred across the bioreactor wall by conduction if there is a temperature gradient across it. Note that, depending on the temperature gradient, conduction does not necessarily occur directly from the inside to the outside. For example conduction may occur from a warmer region of the bioreactor wall in contact with the substrate bed to a cooler region of the bioreactor wall in contact with the headspace gases. The distribution of temperatures in SSF bioreactor walls and its influence on conduction has received almost no attention.
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