Continuous solid-state fermentation shares many of the challenges that are faced by SSF processes operated in the batch mode but it also has its own features. It has not received much attention in the literature. In order to understand the possible advantages and limitations of this mode of operation, it will be necessary to
• develop flow models that more realistically describe the flow patterns within the various designs;
• incorporate heat and mass balances into the models of continuous operation;
• recognize the fact that each particle acts much like a "batch micro-bioreactor", this being quite different from the situation in SLF where perfect mixing is assumed down to the molecular level;
• understand the dynamic behavior of these systems, in order to develop appropriate start-up strategies for continuous operation and also to control the process, minimizing oscillations in the product quality.
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