T

1 max y

^max rsubscript overall rate of change in a species, with the particular species being indicated by the subscript (kg h-1 or mol h-1)

rC overall rate of CO2 production (mol-CO2 h-1)

rN overall rate of nutrient consumption (kg-nutrient h-1)

rP overall rate of product formation (kg h-1)

rO overall rate of O2 consumption (mol-O2 h-1)

rQ overall rate of metabolic waste heat production (J h-1)

rW overall rate of metabolic water production (kg-H2O h-1

td time at which inactivation kinetics appear (h)

tr time at which inactivation kinetics disappear (h)

T time for complete particle degradation in Eq. (17.10)

X total mass of biomass within the bioreactor (kg-dry-biomass)

Xm maximum possible biomass, logistic equation (kg-dry-biomass)

Xo initial biomass (kg-dry-biomass)

YAB stoichiometric relationship between two species as indicated by subscripts A and B (kg-A kg-B-1)

YCX yield of CO2 from biomass (mol-CO2 kg-dry-biomass-1)

YPX yield of product from growth (kg-product kg-dry-biomass-1)

YqC yield of heat from CO2 production (J kg-CO2-1)

YqX yield of heat from the growth reaction (J kg-dry-biomass-1)

YWX yield of water from the growth reaction (kg-H2O kg-dry-biomass-1)

Yxn yield of biomass from a nutrient (kg-dry-biomass kg-nutrient-1)

YXO yield of biomass from O2 (kg-dry-biomass mol-O2-1)

YXS yield of biomass based on overall residual dry substrate

(kg-dry-biomass kg-dry-substrate-1)

X fractional particle length (i.e., lc/L) in Eq. (17.10) (dimensionless)

X time at which product begins to be produced (h), used in Eq. (17.14)

H specific growth rate parameter (h-1)

Chapter 18

Asubscript area of the transfer surface indicated by subscript (m2)

awsolid* water activity for solids to be in equilibrium with the gas phase aw(subscript) water activity of phase or subsystem indicated by subscript

CPbed overall heat capacity of the bed (J kg-1 °C-1)

CPsubscript heat capacity of phase or subsystem indicated by subscript (J kg-1 °C-1)

D total mass of dry solids in the bed (kg-dry-solids)

hsubscript heat transfer coefficient as indicated by subscript (J h-1 m-2 °C-1)

hA global heat transfer coefficient (J h-1 °C-1)

Hsat saturation humidity (kg-vapor kg-dry-air-1)

Hsubscript humidity of a subsystem or phase as indicated by subscript

kw mass transfer coefficient for water (kg-H2O m-2 h-1)

mbed mass of the bed (kg)

Mwater overall mass of water in the bed (kg)

rg rate of metabolic heat production (J h-1)

rW rate of metabolic water production (kg h-1)

Rsubscript rate of a mass transfer phenomenon that involves water (kg-H2O h-1)

Qsubscript rate of a heat transport phenomenon as indicated by subscript (J h-1)

Tsubscript temperature of phase or subsystem indicated by subscript (°C)

Vz air superficial velocity (m h-1)

W water content of the bed (kg-H2O kg-dry-solids-1)

Wsat water content that the solids would have if they were in equilibrium with the gas phase, dry basis (kg-H2O kg-dry solid-1)

x distance, usually horizontal distance within the phase (m)

z distance, usually vertical (axial) distance within the phase (m)

X enthalpy of vaporization of water (J kg-H2O-1)

Psubscript density of phase or subsystem indicated by subscript (kg m-3)

Chapter 19

a

fitting parameter of the Antoine equation

awg

gas phase water activity

aws

water activity of the solids

b

fitting parameter of the Antoine equation

c

fitting parameter of the Antoine equation

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