W X

X max

Yq M

kHvan overall bed heat capacity (J kg-1 °C-1)

heat capacity of water vapor (J kg-vapor-1 °C-1)

constants in the double-Arrhenius equation (J mol-1)

air flow rate on a dry basis (kg-dry-air h-1)

outlet air humidity (kg-vapor kg-dry-air-1)

inlet air humidity (kg-vapor kg-dry-air-1)

total bed mass (kg)

universal gas constant (J mol-1 K-1)

dry substrate concentration (kg-dry-substrate m-3).

temperature of the substrate bed and the outlet air (°C)

inlet air temperature (°C)

temperature of the surroundings (°C)

water content on a dry basis (kg-H2O kg-dry-substrate-1)

amount of biomass in the bioreactor (kg)

maximum possible amount of biomass in the bioreactor (kg)

yield of metabolic heat from growth (J kg-biomass-1)

specific growth rate parameter (h-1)

enthalpy of vaporization of water (J kg-H2O-1)

Chapter 13

A area for heat transfer as indicated by subscript (m2)

aw water activity as indicated by subscript

DS diffusivity of the substrate (m2 h-1)

h heat transfer coefficient as indicated by subscript (J h-1 m-2 °C-1)

H humidity of phase indicated by subscript (kg-vapor kg-dry-air-1)

k mass transfer coefficient (kg m-2 h-1)

KS saturation constant of the Monod equation (g L-1)

r radial position (m)

S substrate concentration (g L-1)

S | r substrate concentration at radial position r (g L-1)

T temperature as indicated by subscript (°C)

X biomass concentration (g L-1)

X | r biomass concentration at radial position r (g L-1)

YXS yield of biomass from substrate (g-dry-biomass g-substrate-1)

/jmiix specific growth rate parameter (h-1)

Chapter 14

A constant of the deceleration growth equation (dimensionless)

C biomass content (basis not specified)

Cm maximum biomass content (basis not specified)

Co initial biomass content (basis not specified)

CXA biomass content related to dry matter at zero time (g-dry-biomass g-initial-dry-solids-1)

CXM biomass content related to fresh matter at time of sampling

(g-dry-biomass g-moist-solids-1) CXR biomass content related to dry matter at time of sampling

(g-dry-biomass g-dry-solids-1) CXW biomass content related to fresh matter at zero time

(g-dry-biomass g-initial-moist-solids -1) D mass of dry solids (g)

Do initial mass of dry solids (g)

k growth equation parameter (g-dry-biomass h-1 for the linear equation, h-1 for the deceleration equation) M mass of moist solids (g)

Mo initial mass of moist solids (g)

S mass of dry residual substrate (g)

So initial mass of dry residual substrate (g)

t time

Wo initial mass of water (g)

X mass of dry biomass (g)

H specific growth rate parameter (h-1)

Chapter 15

CXR biomass content, relative basis (g-dry-biomass g-dry-solids-1) CXA biomass content, absolute basis (g-dry-biomass g-initial-dry-solids-1) CCA concentration of a biomass component

(mg-component g-initial-dry-solids1) CF content of biomass component within the biomass

(mg-component g-biomass-1) di dry mass of sample removed from the "ith" flask for determination of the moisture content (g) Di dry mass of solids in the sample removed for biomass determination

(g-dry-solids)

do dry mass of sample removed at zero time (g)

Gx biomass glucosamine content (mg-glucosamine mg-dry-biomass-1)

IDSi dry substrate initially added to the "ith" flask (g) IWC initial water content, wet basis (% by mass)

mt wet mass of sample removed from the "ith" flash for determination of the moisture content (g) mo wet mass of sample removed at zero time (g)

Mi fresh mass of the sample removed for biomass determination

(g-moist-solids)

Moi mass of substrate initially added to the "ith" flask (g)

WCi moisture content of the "ith" flask at the time of sampling, wet basis

Chapter 16

ao to a4

fitting parameters for Eq. (16.14)

aws

water activity of the solid substrate phase

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