Survive Global Water Shortages
Fresh water, as received from an outside supply, may not have enough pressure to fill tank TK-101. Booster pump P-101 is used to elevate the water supply pressure. Feedwater is stored in tank TK-101, holding approximately 72-hr supply. Water is pumped by P-102 to water filter V-101, which removes most entrained solids. Filter aids are added at the discharge of P-102, using a dozing pump to facilitate removal of suspended solids. Filtered water next passes through a bed of cation and anion resins in V-102 and V-103, which remove all anions and cations in the water by an ion exchange process. A high-purity water, which is essentially free of salts, is produced and stored in tank TK-102. Demin-eralizer beds are exhausted after 3-7 days operation, and they are regenerated by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (cation resins) and caustic soda (anion resins). Each demineralizer bed is equipped with automatic regeneration facility. The typical feedwater and BFW water qualities are shown in...
It is necessary to maintain accurate blueprints of all water systems for FDA review and to comply with cGMP's. It is also critical to the integrity of the system that the validation be kept current. In order to accomplish these objectives, a change control procedure must be implemented that ensures that all changes to the system are fully documented, and all anticipated changes are evaluated by appropriate personnel for potential adverse effects on the system prior to implementation. Based on this evaluation, decisions are made about the need for revalidation to guarantee that the system remains under control. APPENDIX I EXISTING AND PROPOSED U. S. EPA DRINKING WATER STANDARDS
This method is used extensively in industry, because a single boiler can heat many pieces of equipment. Industrial applications usually use steam as the heat transfer medium, because it is very efficient. Steam can be heated to very high temperatures and its own pressure will move it around the system, while hot water systems require a separate pump.
FIG. 13-58 (Continued) Residue curve maps. (b) MEK-MIPK-water system containing two minumum-boiling binary azeotropes. FIG. 13-58 (Continued) Residue curve maps. (b) MEK-MIPK-water system containing two minumum-boiling binary azeotropes. FIG. 13-58 (Continued ) Residue curve maps. (c) Ethanol-cyclohexane-water system containing four minimum-boiling azeotropes and three distillation regions. In Region II, the high- and low-boiling nodes are MIPK and the MEK-water azeotrope, respectively. The more complicated cyclo-hexane-ethanol-water system (Fig. 13-58c) has three separatrices and three regions, all of which share the ternary azeotrope as the low-boiling node.
FIG. 13-13 Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for an n-butanol-water system at 101.3 kPa (1 atm) phase splitting and heterogeneous-azeotrope formation. FIG. 13-13 Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for an n-butanol-water system at 101.3 kPa (1 atm) phase splitting and heterogeneous-azeotrope formation.
In high purity water systems, UV light is often used in-line to control microorganism contamination. Use of UV as a disinfectant is somewhat controversial. In the author's opinion, UV as an added measure is worthwhile however, it should not be totally relied on to keep the water clear of bacterial contaminants. UV systems cannot correct for a poorly designed water system. Also, note that UV kills microorganisms and hence generates pyrogens. 2 In most cases, microorganisms can be filtered out, while pyrogens cannot be.
Only was the separation of the ethanol water system by FAD investigated because ethanol is a basic chemical material and solvent used in the production of many chemicals and intermediates 1,2 . The experimental results obtained from the VLE of the ethanol water system at 70 C in the presence of 6.5 g of 3 and 4 A molecular sieves showed considerable change from those without the molecular sieves. The azeotropic point for this system was eliminated. Moreover, no further improvement in this separation was achieved by increasing the weight of the molecular sieves beyond the optimum value. The alteration of the VLE is a result of the external force field exerted by the molecular sieves on the mixture's components. These results prove the feasibility of using active packing materials to alter the VLE of binary mixtures.
Unnecessary restraints should not be imposed on the pressure drops permitted across the water side of condensers. All too often, specified design values for pressure drop are too low and much higher values are realized when the unit has been installed and is operating. Not only does this result in more expensive equipment, but frequently the water flow rate is not monitored and cooling water consumption is excessive, increasing operating costs. Because cooling water consumption is governed by factors other than energy conservation and because cooling water velocities must be maintained above certain values, tempered water systems can be effectively used at locations where cooling water temperatures vary with the season of the year. At some locations a 30 C difference between summer and winter water temperatures is experienced. At such locations a tempered water system may be used in order to reduce both pumping costs and maintenance costs. A tempered water system requires a pump to...
Some azeotropic mixtures can be separated by changing the operating pressure of the column. This applies to those systems where the azeotropic composition is significantly affected by the operating pressure. APV has used this technique to separate the methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) water system. In the process, the product is processed in the first column at atmospheric pressure to remove the azeotrope as a distillate. The azeotrope at 89 w w is then pumped to a second column which operates at 74 psia (5 bar a). At this pressure, the azeotropic composition is at about 83 w w, which is substantially lower than the feed composition. Therefore, it is possible to remove dehydrated MEK from the column bottom and take an azeotrope distillate at about 83 w w from the top. This azeotrope is then recycled back to the first column. Since the columns are operated at different pressures and temperatures, it is possible to economize on energy by using vapor from the higher pressure column as the heat...
Apparent 488 Temperature gradient 521 Temperature limit 547 Temperature measuring devices 686 Temperature recorder 72 Temperature sensitivity 481 Temperature-time relationship 525 Tempered water system 512 Ter Meer 578 Terminal velocity 364, 374 Test unit 748 Testing and scale-up 722 TGF 26
The benzene-alcohol-water system can produce an overhead vapor that will give two liquid phases on condensation which makes it possible to by-pass the azeotrope in a manner analogous to that which was shown for partly miscible binary distillations, and the same type of two-tower system is applicable. It should be noted that the system does not produce the ternary azeotrope as the overhead composition,
Absorption Refrigeration Systems Two main absorption systems are used in industrial application lithium bromide-water and ammonia-water. Lithium bromide-water systems are limited to evaporation temperatures above freezing because water is used as the refrigerant, while the refrigerant in an ammonia-water system is ammonia and consequently it can be applied for the lower-temperature requirements. The ammonia-water absorption system was extensively used until the fifties when the LiBr-water combination became popular. Figure 11-103 shows a simplified ammonia-water absorption cycle. The refrigerant is ammonia, and the absorbent is dilute aqueous solution of ammonia. Ammonia-water systems differ from water-lithium bromide equipment to accommodate major differences Water (here absorbent) is also volatile, so the regeneration of weak water solution to strong water solution is a fractional distillation. Different refrigerant (ammonia) causes different, much higher pressures about 11002100...
Bubble regime (F g. 6.25a) or deep pool occurs at low vapor velocities. Discrete noncoalescing bubble swarms rise through quiescent liquid, which has a very clear surface. For the air-water system, Wallis (100 showed that this regime is unlikely to occur when vapor velocities exceed 0.15 ft sec, and therefore, in industrial columns. It may occur in bench-scale and pilot columns where outlet weirs are tall. If this regime occurs in a test unit, caution is required in data scale-up.
Where heat-of-solution effects are not significant. When heat-of-solu-tion effects Eire small, the ratio of the molar latent heats of the pure components provides insight into the suitability of the assumption (Table 2.1). The assumption holds well for the benzene-toluene, isobu-tane-normal butane, propane-normal butane, and normal heptane-ethylbenzene systems, where the latent heat ratios are close to unity. The assumption is less satisfactory for the acetone-water and methane-ethylene systems, where this ratio is higher. The assumption is poor for the ammonia-water system where the latent heat ratio is close to 2.
Activated charcoal is used in gas masks, in water purification and in many other areas where small quantities of an adulterant need removal. Its effect is a physical one, not chemical. The adulterant is adsorbed on the enormous internal surface area available. This surface can amount to 1000 m2 gram and is produced in a number of ways but often through the use of superheated steam on ordinary charcoal. The cheapest source is a water treatment company.
If the sidestream is a vapor, a rectifier can be added that removes some of the heavy impurity in the vapor sidestream coming from the main tower. To illustrate this configuration, we take the same DME MeOH water system studied in the previous section but remove a vapor sidestream below the feed stage.
Congress enacted the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because activated carbon can often be used to help meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, the U.S. activated carbon industry reacted by increasing its production capacity. A proposed amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1979 required the use of granular activated carbon systems, but the amendment was not enacted. In response to the projected increase in demand for activated carbon, production capacity remained high until the late 1980s, but when the anticipated need did not materialize, some production facilities were shut down. Currently, because of stricter EPA regulations implementing all three acts in 1990, the industry will increase production capacity by 25 during the next several years (35,38).
Homogeneous azeotrope at 351 K of composition 90 mol ethanol. Much more complexity is introduced by the benzene water system, which forms two liquid phases with partial miscibility. The flowsheet contains two distillation columns and a decanter. There are two recycle streams, which create very difficult convergence problems, as we will see. So this complex example is a challenging simulation case.
The simplest distillation you can perform is to heat up water and then condense the vapor. This results in a distillate that contains only water, and nothing else. It will contain no salts or any other nonvolatile dissolved substances. Many people distil water at home, using a variety of small commercially produced water distillers. Industrially, enormous plants produce millions of gallons of distillate from seawater for irrigation and drinking water Textbooks often present the classical survival still as a way to survive in the desert by distilling contaminated water. Let's discuss this simple but very inefficient design, and see how it can be improved. Sunshine passes through the transparent sheet and warms up the stones and liquid in the bottom of the pit, causing the contaminated water to evaporate. This vapor condenses on the sheet and drips from the low point into the collecting vessel. A good yield might be a couple of mouthfuls of distilled water each day, which is not enough...
Both potable and irrigation water are supplied through the utility water distribution system in the refinery. The refinery may draw its potable water supply from a municipal water supply or a desalination plant in coastal refineries. For supply to refinery drinking water and safety showers, further treatment is required. The treatment consists of passing through a bed of activated carbon in the form of extrad tes and supported on a bed of graded quartz. Filtered water is next cooled to 85 F in a water cooler and chlorinated. The treated water must have a residual chlorine content of no less than 0.5 mg liter. In case the refinery potable water supply comes from a desalination plant, the total dissolved solids (TDS) may be very low, on the order of 2 mg liter. The water must be chemically conditioned to make it potable and increase the TDS to potable water requirements (80 mg liter minimum). Chemical conditioning consists of dosing measured amounts of calcium chloride, sodium...
Purified water is typically prepared by ion exchange, reverse osmosis or a combination ofthe two treatment processes .Purified water is intended for use as an ingredient in the preparation of compedial dosage forms. It contains no added substances, and is not intended for use in parenteral products. It contains no chloride, calcium, or sulfate, and is essentially free of ammonia, carbon dioxide, heavy metals, and oxidizable substances. Total solids content will be no more than 10 ppm, pH will be 5-7, and the water will contain no coliforms. The United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary (USP) requires that purified water comply with EPA regulations for bacteriological purity of drinking water (40 CFR 141.14, 141.21). Table 4 is a quantitative interpretation of United States Pharmacopoeia XXI standards for purified water.115
The extent of entrainment of the liquid by the vapour rising over a plate has been studied by many workers. The entrainment has been found to vary with the vapour velocity in the slot or perforation, and the spacing used. Strang(60), using an air-water system, found that entrainment was small until a critical vapour velocity was reached, above which it increased rapidly. Similar results from Peavy and Baker(61) and Colburn(62) have shown the effect on tray efficiency, which is not seriously affected until the entrainment exceeds 0.1 kmol of liquid per kmol of vapour. The entrainment on sieve trays is discussed in Section 11.10.4.
Many places around the world, such as the Middle East, the majority of Africa and the Northwest of China, are suffering from lack and scarcity of pure drinkable water, or the increase of ground water salinity. These districts are characterized by brackish water resource and infrequent rainfall, but fortunately an abundant source of solar energy. So the solar desalination is considered to be a feasible technique for solving this crisis. As a separation technique for water purification, the solar desalination has been known for a long time, and various types of solar stills for this purpose have been developed and applied worldwide 39 . The solar desalination system is of low operation and maintenance costs, but a major drawback is very low thermal efficiency. For a given productivity, usually a substantially large installation area is required, which in turn results in high initial investment costs. The employment of membrane technology in desalination is another choice for water...
The initial step in the design of cooling water systems is to determine the design temperature and system capacity. The system capacity varies with design temperature as limited by process conditions. The usual cooling range is between 25 and 30 F. The inlet temperature of water to cooling equipment is established by ambient conditions, generally in the range 75-86 F, and the outlet temperature is in the range 104-114 F. The type and quality of water set the outlet water temperature. The maximum temperature of water in the heat exchangers must be limited to prevent corrosion and deposit of solids.
In distillation terminology, stripping refers to the removal of a volatile component from a less volatile substance. Again, referring to the ethyl alcohol water system, stripping is done in the column below the feed point, where the alcohol enters at about 10 by weight and the resulting liquid from the column base contains less than 0.02 alcohol by weight. This is known as the stripping section of the column. This technique does not increase the concentration of the more volatile component, but rather decreases its concentration in the less volatile component.
In Fig. 29, the ratio of mixer horsepower to gas expansion horsepower is shown with the optimum D T range from a mass transfer standpoint in air-water systems. At the left of Fig. 29, it can be seen that large D T ratios are more effective than small D T ratios. This is in an area where the mixer power level is equal to or perhaps less than the gas expansion power level. Moving to the right, in the center range it is seen that the optimum D T ratios are on the order of 0.1 to 0.2. This corresponds to an area where the mixer power level is two to ten times higher than the expansion power in the gas stream. Thus shear rate is more important than pumping capacity in this range, which is a very practical range for many types of gas-liquid contacting operations, including aerobic mass transfer in fermentation.
The form of the McNulty and Hsieh correlation used here is the form uncorrected for physical properties (the term yU*'*3 in the final form of the correlation was ignored). Strictly speaking, McNulty and Hsieh's correlation is only valid for the air-water system. To allow for the effect of physical properties on packing capacity, McNulty and Hsieh added a factor of to their correlation (where yu is the liquid Including the viscosity term would tend to slightly increase Flexipac capacity with low viscosity systems (eg, light hydrocarbons) compared to the air-water system. However, comparison of correlation predictions for such systems to measured Pall-ring pressure drop data (Figure 26 in reference 18) appears to imply that the correlation predicts capacities which are slightly higher than those observed. The author, therefore, believes that closer predictions of low viscosity systems would be obtained if the viscosity term is ignored. Note that the viscosity factor makes only a small...
The test work, the most similar test feed composition was used. As expected, the operating performance compared well with the laboratory test work and, therefore, the design. From the data, it would seem that the UNIFAC and NRTL models did not generate a good correlation, and a design based on the models would have been incorrect. In the case of NRTL, accurate data was expected since all 9 BIPs were established. While it may appear that the models are not correct, the most likely error in the calculations was probably in the conversion of the theoretical stage requirements into actual installed stages. This problem was reported in 1994 by FRI (1). Although there is still no complete explanation, it would appear that in the extremely low concentration range, the usual vapor diffusion limited mass transfer models are not controlling the transfer rate. The systems are liquid diffusion rate controlled. Very little data exists to validate predictive models. Test work was performed by FRI...
The reactor is cooled by a circulating cooling water system that is assumed to provide a constant coolant temperature throughout the shell of the reactor. An overall heat transfer coefficient of 568 W m-2 K-1 is assumed. The reactor inlet temperature is 338 K, the heat transfer rate is 0.422 MW, and the coolant temperature is 355 K. Figure 14.2 shows the temperature profile in the prereactor. The peak temperature is only 360 K.
Lockett and Banik (56) and Hsieh and McNulty (63) proposed correlations for predicting weep rates from sieve trays. Both correlations are based on pilot scale data, mainly with the air-water system. The Hsieh and McNulty correlation is based on a broader data bank, which includes the experimental data by Lockett and Banik. Hsieh and McNulty used an even wider, non-air-water, proprietary data bank for testing some of their predicted trends.
One litre of boiling stones (i.e., Rachi rings) in the bottom of the boiling vessel spreads the heat more evenly and reduces surge boiling. Add some anti foaming agent for example M10 Stabil. If you have a water well and pump, water pressure can vary which can cause surge boiling. There are several solutions to this.
Natural water used as a depository of sewage or sewage effluent. The Report of the International Joint Commission on Pollution of Boundary Waters recommends that the sewage effluent should not impose upon water purification plants, water fifty per cent of whose 0.1 cc. samples should contain B. coli.
Osmosis is the procedure by which two solutions separated by semipermeable membrane interchange a solvent. The solvent moves from the solution that is low in solute to the solution that is high in solute through the semipermeable membrane in order to equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane. By applying water, under pressure, to this semipermeable membrane, the process of osmosis is reversed, forcing pure water through the membrane and leaving a concentrated solution behind. The concentrated side is continuously removed to prevent fouling. A typical RO used in water systems is designed to reject 25 to 50 of the feed water continuously.
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