Making Wine At Home Is Easy

Successful Winemaking Craft Superb Table Wines At Home

Here's just a few things the book covers all in clear step-by-step instructions: The modern methods of home winemaking that are quick, clean, and simple, giving wonderful wines, high in alcohol and perfectly clear. How to make the classic wine grape wines, including reds, whites and beautiful ross, including how long to leave the must before fermentation starts, and how long to ferment this is absolutely crucial. Recipes and step-by-step techniques for making French and Italian Vermouth-style wines, and well as cherry-brandy and other fruit liqueurs. The best kind of yeast to use for home winemaking, and how much to use for exactly the right amount of alcohol. The perfect temperature to keep the must for clear, high-alcohol wine this has a tolerance of only 5 degrees, so you have to have this right. The correct kind of sugar to use for wines you will be proud of dont skimp on this and where to store your wines while fermenting for best results. How to know when fermentation has ceased, and the particular pieces of equipment to use to know when this is if you have this wrong your wine will be over-sweet and low in alcohol, or sour and flat. The recipes and methods to ensure your wine is crystal-clear, and when, if and how to rack your wine. The enemies of home winemaking which can leave your wine sour, or acid, and how to combat these enemies which live in every house. How to correctly sterilize jars, bottles and corks properly so fermentation can occur correctly. The role of sulfites in clarifying wine, but most importantly, exactly how much to use almost no home winemaker knows this amount correctly. Read more...

Successful Winemaking Craft Superb Table Wines At Home Overview

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: EBook
Author: Edward Jones
Official Website: www.makingwine.net
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My Successful Winemaking Craft Superb Table Wines At Home Review

Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

The Total Wine Making System

A complete guide to selecting the perfect location for and setting up your vineyard. The 4 factors you Must consider before you plant your grapes. The types of grapes you plant determine the type of wine youll eventually have. Learn how to determine which grapes are best for you! Learn the single most important factor that determines the quality of your wine grapes and how to preserve it! The importance of three climate factors in growing grapes. The more than 40 types of grapes that are suitable for wine making. The 5 essential aspects of ensuring healthy, vibrant grapes (and in turn delicious wine). Without these, your venture just cant succeed. An entire chapter devoted to vineyard care, starting with the first year of cultivation. The 5 most efficient ways to control weeds in your vineyard. A complete guide to disease and pest control practices for your vineyard. Read more...

The Total Wine Making System Overview

Contents: EBook
Author: Michael James
Official Website: totalwinesystem.com
Price: $17.77

Winemaking Circles

WINEMAKING as an organised hobby is a comparatively new thing, although wines have been made in these islands for centuries in the cottages of country folk. It was only in 1953 that the first Winemakers' Circle was formed at Andover, closely followed quite independently and spontaneously by others at Welwyn Garden City and Cheltenham. In the few years since, however, the idea has spread with astounding speed, and by 1968 there were well over 400 such clubs, scattered the length and breadth of the British Isles, and even in Canada most of them following the original idea and calling themselves Circles, some of them adopting the style of Guilds, and yet others calling themselves Societies or Associations. The publication of the monthly magazine, The Amateur Winemaker, from 1958 onwards has done much to consolidate the movement and publicise the aims of the Circles. Practical winemaking is learnt pleasantly and in a sociable atmosphere by means of talks, demonstrations, quizzes, and...

Winemaking

A complete month-by-month guide to winemaking (including the production of cider, perry and mead) and beer brewing at home, with over 130 tried and tested recipes (Editor, The Amateur Winemaker) The Amateur Winemaker, North Croye, The Avenue, Andover, Hants THIS little book really started as a collection of recipes, reliable recipes which had appeared in the monthly magazine, The Amateur Winemaker. First published in January 1960, it was an instant and phenomenal success, for a quarter of a million copies have been sold, and it is now recognised as the best rapidcourse in winemakingavailable to the beginner. Those who are in need of recipes, and who have probably just fallen under the spell of this fascinating hobby of ours, will also want to know more of its technicalities, so this book includes a wealth of practical tips and certain factual information that any winemaker would find useful. In particular, the hydrometer, ignored in many books on winemaking, has been dealt with simply...

Winery Yeasts and Yeasts Used for the Production of Distilled Alcohols

Traditionally, wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation and several yeast species have been reported to be involved in the fermentation. The predominant microorganisms on the grapes vary according to the grape variety, climatic conditions, soil quality, development and physical quality of the grapes, as well as the amount of fungicides applied to the vineyards. Nevertheless, the predominant yeast genera on grapes are reported to be Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not observed or observed at only very low concentrations on healthy undamaged berries. The yeast genera associated with wine making include Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dekkera (teleomorphic form of Brettanomyces), Hanseniaspora (teleomorphic form of Kloeckera), Kluyveromyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycodes, Schizosaccharomy-ces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Some of these yeast genera are thought to be essential for the wine fermentation, and others...

The History Of Corn Whiskey

In the years leading up to the migration of the Scotch-Irish to the American frontier in the 1700s, the early Americans began making wine from pumpkins, grapes, currants, elderberries, and parsnips. Indeed, it appeared there was no fruit or grain that was not grist for the mill to satisfy the colonists' desire for fermented and or distilled spirits. They were distilling ardent spirits from blackberries, persimmons, plums, whortleberries, sassafras bark, birch barks, corn stalks, hickory nuts, pumpkins, the pawpaw, turnips, carrots, potatoes, and small grains.

Making up a starter bottle

Baker's yeast, brewer's yeast, or granulated yeast (the packeted variety) can be added direct to the liquor. Baker's yeast should be fresh. It is best added when the temperature of the liquor is lukewarm, about 70 deg. F. These will give you a more vigorous and frothy ferment than a wine yeast this does not help the wine, but it perhaps does help someone who is just starting winemaking and who wants to be sure that a ferment really has got going.

The malolactic fermentation

OCCASIONALLY one comes across what is really a third fermentation, the malo-lactic fermentation. This occurs usually after the wine has been bottled, and often as much as a year or more after it was made. It is something which should be welcomed, when it does occur, for it imparts a very pleasant freshness to a white wine, and does reduce the acidity a little. For this last reason it is important to the winemakers of Austria, Germany and Switzerland, whose grapes tend to contain slightly more malic acid than those from sunnier regions, where the sun will have accounted for most of it before the wine is even made.

The fermentation trap

Fermentation Trap Airlock

THE essential thing to realise about winemaking. is that the most important and central factor is the YEAST. The whole of winemaking practice really comes down to the matter of providing ideal conditions for the yeast, a living organism, to thrive and multiply. To do that the yeast must have sugar, it must have warmth, it must have oxygen, it must have a certain amount of nitrogenous matter, vitamins, and some acid. The ideal recipe will provide all of these if any one of them is lacking the ferment may stick, or temporarily stop.

Organising a wine competition

IF, as a winemaker, you wish to exhibit your wine competitively, you are not likely to encounter many difficulties, so long as you adhere rigidly to any conditions which are laid down in the show's schedule, and if your wine is up to standard, you may even win a prize If, however, you are a club secretary or official, or even are known locally as someone who knows a bit about wine,'.' you are liable suddenly to find yourself faced with a request by some flower show or other to lay down rules and regulations for a wine class which the committee is thinking of including for the first time. But how, I can hear you asking, does one actually judge wine And here I run into difficulty, because it is just not possible to describe a taste with pen and paper. And that, of course, is the factor with which one is principally concerned. Taste, and knowledge of wine, is largely a matter of accumulated comparative experience, and it is up to every winemaker, whether he aspires to judge or not,...

Batch Fermentation Introduction

Batch processes have been around for many millennia, probably since the beginning of human civilization. Cooking, bread making, tanning, and wine making are some of the batch processes that humans relied upon for survival and pleasure. The term batch process is often used to refer generically to both batch and fed-batch operations. In the former case, all ingredients used in the operation are fed to the processing vessel at the beginning of the operation and no addition or withdrawal of material takes place during the batch run. In the latter, material can be added during the batch run. For brevity, the term batch is used in this text to refer to both batch and fed-batch operations when there is no need to distinguish between them. The term fed-batch is used to denote addition of material in some portions of an otherwise batch operation.

Distillation column filling

If one wishes to compare the results of using Rachi rings and most other fillings the difference is as night is to day. Both the column and column filling must be cleaned thoroughly before each distillation, and must be cleaned after each distillation. A good cleaner is a winemaking cleaning agent used for cleaning of demijohns and bottles.

Fermentation and Metabolism Basics

Parts Aspergillus Sporangiospore

For several fermented foods, important end-products are produced via non-fermentative pathways (as classically defined). For example, the malolactic fermentation that is very important in wine making is really just a decarboxyla-tion reaction that does not conform, strictly

Temperature measurement

A word must be said here about the accuracy of thermometers. A thermometer purchased from a scientific supply house should be accurate to 0.1 deg. C. but don't count on it. Thermometers purchased at a drugstore or a winemaker's supply store can be off by as much as 2 degrees. We recommend that you always check the accuracy of a thermometer by placing it in boiling water and recording the temperature. You may be lucky and find you have purchased one which reads 100 deg. C. but if it doesn't, simply make a note of the deviation and apply the appropriate correction whenever you use it to read a temperature. And don't forget that atmospheric pressure affects the boiling point of water. Digital thermometers are extremely useful in that they are much easier to read than the glass type, sit right in front of you on the bench and are accurate enough for our purposes, more accurate in many cases than the other sort.

Sulfur Dioxide Treatment

This is now a convenient point at which to discuss the use of sulfur dioxide and pure culture technique for wine making. As soon as the in tegrity of the grapes has been compromised by the crushing step, the sugars in the juice are liberated and made available for whatever microorganisms happen to be present. Ordinarily, the must is populated by epiphytic yeasts (that is, yeasts that reside on the surface of the grapes) and by yeasts that have contaminated the crushers, presses, and other wine-making equipment. Although the surface of a single grape may contain only about 102 to 104 yeast cells, after the grapes have been exposed to the contaminated equipment, the number of cells increases about 100-fold, to about 104 to 106 cells per ml. Whether this resident microflora actually commences a fermentation, however, depends on the intent of the wine maker. Table 1. Starter cultures versus natural fermentation for wine-making. This study points out several important features. First, it...

Microbial Ecology and Spontaneous Wine Fermentations

In the absence of SO2 addition, the indigenous microflora is relied upon to initiate and then carry out a spontaneous or natural fermenta-tion.This is one of the most well studied of all fermentations, and much is now known about the ecology of wine and the yeasts that participate in the wine fermentation. In reality, however, the yeast fermentation is but one of two distinct fermentations that occur in wine making. Yeasts, of course, ferment sugars to ethanol, CO2, and small amounts of other end products. A second fermentation, called the malolactic fermentation, is carried out by specific lactic acid bacteria that are either naturally present or added for this purpose. The malolactic fermentation, to be discussed later, is now regarded as nearly as important to wine quality as the ethanolic fermentation.

Wine Manufacture Principles

Making wine, as far as the actual steps are concerned, looks to be a rather simple and straightforward process (Figure 10-3). Grapes are harvested and crushed, the crushed material or juice is fermented by yeasts and bacteria, the organisms and insoluble materials are removed, and the wine is aged and bottled. In reality, the process is far from easy, and each of these pre-fermentation, fermentation, and post-fermentation steps must be carefully executed if high-quality wine is to be consistently produced.

Wine Spoilage and Defects

It can reasonably be said that as many things that can go right during wine manufacture, just as many can go wrong. The risk is exacerbated by the considerable investment that must be made to produce the wine (thus the old joke How does one make a million dollars in the wine business Start with 2 million). Grapes must be cultivated over several seasons before a reasonable crop can be harvested. Disease, climate, insects, and other factors can cause serious problems even before the first grape has been harvested and crushed. Once wine making begins, growth of desirable yeast and bacteria and inhibition of others is not always easy to manage. Finally, aging of wine may result in a product ranging from truly spectacular to totally undrinkable.

The Question Of Legality

The battle between illicit distillers (moonshiners) or illicit importers (smugglers) and the authorities has now become the stuff of legends. Consider the number of stories written or movies made about rumrunners and road hustlers Or, about the battles between gangsters and police during the prohibition in the United States Unfortunately, such stories have been taken too much to heart by the general public so that the whole idea of home distillation is now perceived as being inherently more wicked than the gentle art of beer or wine making. It is understandable, and fully supported by the author, that a government would wish to put a stop to smuggling and moonshining for illicit commercial purposes, that is to say in order to sell the product and avoid the payment of taxes. But why would there be a complete ban on distillation by amateurs on a small scale and for their own use Beer and wine making by amateurs is perfectly legal on the small scale for personal consumption, and total...

Fermentation vessel

One of the best fermentation vessels for mash is a winemaking container. These are graduated from 1-30 litres (or in pints and gallons) and the graduation is very useful. The lid is removable so that sugar can be dissolved directly in the water. The vessel is wide at the top so that the carbon dioxide leaves at the widest point, which speeds up fermentation. Such vessels are very easy to keep clean.

A fascinating craft

IF you are toying with the idea of trying your hand at winemaking, delay no longer. Go right ahead By so doing you will be joining the thousands of happy folk who, in recent years, have discovered this intriguing and rewarding hobby. It is, indeed, a pastime which truly brings its own rewards, for there can be few pleasures to equal that of being able to offer a friend, and enjoy with him, a glass of one's own wine. In post-war years there has been an astonishing revival of home winemaking in Britain wine, it is true, has been made here for centuries, but sugar scarcity during World War II and lack of opportunity debarred many from taking up the pastime, and it was left to the few to keep our craft alive. Now, however, it is attracting the interest of thousands, and scientific developments and the spread of wine-making knowledge have made it possible for anyone to produce a palatable wine in their own home.

What you will need

DO not, at the outset, buy a lot of expensive equipment it is better to start making wine with what you have you probably have in your kitchen already some of the essentials and then to acquire the rest by stages as the necessity arises. For a start you will undoubtedly need some kind of boiler, and if you can lay your hands on one that will hold three to five gallons it will prove ideal. Failing that, you can make do with a one-gallon or one-and-a-half-gallon saucepan. You will also need a large vessel in which to do your soaking, or mashing, and one of three to five gallons is ideal. The most commonly used nowadays is a plastic dustbin, since it is cheap, easy to clean and store, and light to handle, and when it splits or is useless for winemaking it can start doing duty as a dustbin Alternatively you can use an earthenware crock of some sort. Tall, cylindrical ones are the most convenient, since they are easier to cover and take up less floor space than the bread-pan variety. They...

Refinements

THESE are the bare essentials, but undoubtedly as you progress in winemaking you will add other pieces of desirable equipment a thermometer, a hydrometer for calculating the strength of your wine, glass tubing for taking samples, small funnels, casks, stone jars, tie-on labels for jars and stick-on labels for bottles, a corking device, a cork borer, jelly bags for straining, a bottle-cleaning brush, and perhaps a small press or one of the quite inexpensive juice extractors now obtainable which can do so very much to remove the cookery from winemaking and make it that more pleasurable. You may even go to the length of wanting to be entirely sure of accuracy, so much so that you will need some acid measuring equipment. But there is no need to bother about all this at the outset. That is the beauty of winemaking, you can tackle it as you please, either in comparatively simple fashion with the help of recipes, or by going the whole hog and delving more fully into its scientific side,...

Oenococcus

As implied by the etymology of its name, the use of O. oeni in fermented foods is restricted to only one application, namely wine making (oenos is the Greek word for wine). Despite its limited use, however, the importance of O. oeni during the wine fermentation cannot be over-stated.This is because O. oeni has the ability to de-acidify wine via the malolactic fermentation, whereby malic acid is decarboxylated to lactic acid (described in detail in Chapter 10). Moreover, given the ability of O. oeni to fer

What wine is

TRUE wine is the product of the grape, we are often reminded, but any winemaker of experience will assure you that we have no cause to feel in any way ashamed of the country wines which can be produced from our native fruits, berries and flowers. Many of these sound wines, robust or delicate according to character, dry or sweet according to one's taste, are truly wines in their own right, quite capable of standing comparison with many which can be obtained commercially. You may find this difficult to believe, but, when you have produced what you think is a good wine, compare it with a commercial wine of similar type, and we guarantee you will be pleasantly surprised.

The vinegar fly

THE worst possible mishap which can befall a winemaker is to have his wine at one stage or another turn to vinegar (from the French vinaigre sour wine), which it can quite easily do if vinegar bacteria are allowed access to it. These bacteria are, like yeasts, present everywhere about us, but are sometimes introduced to the wine by that obnoxious carrier, the vinegar fly. This tiny fly, which appears as if by magic around any fermenting liquor or fruit, is the wine-maker's biggest enemy it must at all costs be kept from your wine. If it gains access the liquor, instead of

Wine yeasts

ONE of the big strides which has been made in winemaking is that there are now available to the amateur many excellent varieties of special wine yeasts, in either culture or tablet form. Their value is unquestioned, for there are innumerable varieties of yeasts, all with different characteristics, and just as some are more suitable for baking or beerbrewing, so others are better for the production of quality wine. A good wine yeast has a high alcohol tolerance (i.e., it will allow the wine to ferment further and be that much stronger before it succumbs) it will form a firmer sediment, making racking much simpler, and it will be less prone to impart off flavours to the wine. Many winemakers, one must admit, still adhere to baker's or brewer's yeasts, but it is a pity to do so without having tried some of the excellent true wine yeasts now on the market. They are certainly worthwhile for one's special wines, and are by no means as expensive as they at first appear, since they can be...

Sugars

MANY old recipes advocate far too much sugar, with the result that the winemaker is disappointed when the yeast fails to use most of it up, and be is left with a syrupy, almost undrinkable concoction. Invert sugar, too, is now available to winemakers. When yeast sets to work upon household sugar, or sucrose, it first splits it into its two main components, glucose and fructose, or inverts it. In invert sugar this has already been accomplished chemically, so that the yeast can start immediately to use the glucose (the principal sugar found in grapes). Thus by using invert one may well obtain improved fermentation, improved to the extent that the yeast does not itself have to effect the inversion. Invert will ferment more quickly than household sugar, and is widely used in the brewing industry. If you wish to use invert sugar, use 1 H lb. in place of every 1 lb. of household sugar specified in the recipes.

Clearing

Filter will prevent a disaster if the bottom point of the filter paper gives way These papers are really efficient and fast-filtering, and admirably suited to the home winemaker's purpose, unlike others which have been sold which, whilst useful in the laboratory, are dreadfully slow in operation, and have led winemakers to the (mistaken) opinion that filter-papers are useless to them. Even ordinary tissues, used double or treble thickness, will provide a reasonable filter. But you may be looking for one method of fining or polishing that can be applied to all your wines, and that can be employed for removing hazes as well. For many years amateur winemakers preferred to use asbestos pulp, but this method is now open to suspicion in that it may be a health hazard, and we therefore do not recommend it.

The quickest way

I MUST not forget to say a word about the grape juice concentrates which are now on the market and which are a real boon to the winemaker who is anxious to see results quickly, yet at a reasonable price. Grape juice concentrate, of course, will make true wine, and at a price far below that of wine bought in a shop, and by using it one can avoid all the cookery aspect of making wine at home. Consequently many people are by-passing the flavour extraction part of the hobby nowadays and making wine from these concentrated grape juices red or white which have merely to be diluted as required, and fermented excellent wine can be produced in this way at a most reasonable price. It has the advantage, too, that it is ready for drinking much more speedily than the average country wine, so that by using this system one can acquire cheaply the nucleus of a cellar whilst waiting for one's country wines to mature. Southern Vinyards Ltd., of Hove, have evolved and simplified a complete system of...

Principles

This transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is a very natural process in fermentation. Anyone who has made homemade wine or beer observes this every time they add the yeast starter. First, the wine or beer goes through an eight to 20-hour lag time, and then the fermentation appears to start. During the lag time the yeast is consuming the dissolved oxygen in the substrate and is multiplying very rapidly. This is the aerobic phase. When the dissolved oxygen is completely consumed the, now abundant, yeast population begins producing alcohol and carbon dioxide. This is the anaerobic phase. The carbon dioxide is observed as the profuse bubbling that is characteristic of fermentation. The other way to measure SG is by using an instrument called a hydrometer. A standard winemaking hydrometer, available at home winemaking supply shops, is excellently suited for measuring mash SG. A hydrometer cylinder, also available at home winemaking supply shops, is used to collect a sample and...

Warning

Some plants and flowers are so poisonous that they must on no account be used for winemaking. Others are doubtful in that they may not be highly poisonous, particularly in the small quantities in which they might be employed in winemaking, but must still be highly suspect. The position is complicated by the fact that some substances used in winemaking, notably sugar and yeast, can sometimes neutralise poisons, so that occasionally safe wines may be made from apparently doubtful sources. But one cannot depend upon this and we would urge winemakers NOT to use anything in the poisonous or doubtful categories. Our lists are by no means exhaustive and the only safe rule is if in doubt about a material don't use it. Those Not recommended are so listed because, although we are often asked to supply recipes using them, they are not suitable winemaking material either because of fermentative difficulties or because they are not palatable.

The hydrometer

Read Hydrometer

IF the fermentation trap is the winemaker's best friend, it is certainly run a close second by the hydrometer. A hydrometer is by no means essential to the production of good wine, but it is a great help, particularly if one is aiming at consistent results. Many winemakers seem to fight shy of it but in principle it is quite a simple device by means of it one can For winemaking you will need hydrometers, or perhaps one hydrometer, covering the range 1.000 to 1.160, and it is often useful to be able to go several degrees below the 1.000. Messrs. W. A. E. Busby, however, produce one which is specially designed for the winemaker and which allows one to calculate the strength any wine has attained without reference to tables or graphs, which is most useful. This hydrometer has the specific gravity and the potential alcoholic strength scales side by side, and it costs no morn than an ordinary hydrometer. Moreover, it covers the whole of the scale, 0.990 to 1.170, that the winemaker is...

Beer and wine

Because beer and wine do not receive any such purification treatment it is necessary to live with whatever mixture of chemicals the fermentation has produced. It would be nice if, after a fermentation had gone slightly wrong and the beer or wine were found to have an unpleasant taste, the offending congeners could be removed. Alas, science has not yet come up with a method for doing this. Which means in practice that beer- and wine-making must be carried out extremely carefully because you are stuck with whatever you've produced. Beer- and winemaking are highly skilled operations, more akin to gourmet cooking than to science, and involve many subtleties and many opportunities for error. Which explains why there is such a wide range of qualities and prices of wines and why amateurs have such difficulty in producing a really first-class product.

Amateur distillation

Unit of alcohol At the risk of being tediously repetitious it is worth reminding ourselves again that distillation is one of the most innocuous activities imaginable. Unlike beer- and wine-making it doesn't produce a drop of alcohol. Not a drop. What it does is take the beer which you have quite legally made by fermentation and remove all the noxious, poisonous substances which appear inevitably as by-products in all fermentations. Strange really that the purification of a legal drug by removing the poisons is illegal. Instead of prohibiting it, the authorities should really be encouraging distillation by amateurs. And the general public, which is so rightly health-conscious these days, would be more that justified in demanding the right to do so. approaching that of commercial brands. So if distillation were legalized for amateurs it would probably become nothing more than an interesting hobby, just like making wine, and offer little competition to commercial producers.

Equipment

An excellent mashing vessel for producing 30L of corn mash is a 34-40L (9-10 US gallon) stainless steel stockpot with an aluminum plate bonded to the bottom, and a lid. This can be purchased at restaurant-supply stores. As well, you will require a large plastic or wooden spoon or paddle to stir the mash, and a floating dairy thermometer or a brewers' mashing thermometer in the range of 0-110oC (32-230oF). These can be purchased at home beer and wine making supply shops. For fermenting you will require at least three 30L (8 US gallon) food-grade plastic pails with lids. 30L pails hold 30L with 2 or 3 cm (an inch or so) to spare. Such pails can be obtained as empty bulk food containers from restaurants or health-food stores, or purchased quite cheaply at home beer and wine making supply stores as specially designed fermenters with volume graduations on the side and with a hole in the lid for a fermentation lock. Siphon You will need a 2M (6') piece of vinyl siphon tube with a racking...

October

Rosehip Syrup provides an easy way of making wine too. And a 6-oz. or 8-oz. bottle is sufficient to make a gallon. Brands commonly available are Delrosa (in 6-oz. and 12-oz. bottles), Hipsy (in 8-oz.) and Optrose (8-oz. and 14-oz.). Merely bring the water to the boil, add the syrup and sugar, and stir well to dissolve. Cool to 70 degrees F., and add the yeast and nutrient. Pour into fermenting jar and fit airlock. Leave in a warm place. After a week top up to bottom of neck with cold boiled water and refit lock. Ferment, rack and bottle in the usual way.

History

The history of wine is nearly as old as the history of human civilization.The earliest writings discovered on the walls of ancient caves and in buried artifacts contain images of wine and wine-making instruments. Wine is mentioned more than 100 times in both the Hebrew and Christian bibles and many of the most well-know passages involve wine. The very first vines, for example, were planted by Noah, who presumably was the first wine maker later Jesus performed the miracle of turning water into wine. Wine also was an important part of Greek and Roman mythology and is described in the writings of Homer and Hippocrates. For thousands of years, even through the present day, wine has had great ritual significance in Grape cultivation (viticulture) and wine making appears to have begun in the Zagros Mountains and Caucasus region of Asia (north of Iran, east ofTurkey). Domestication of grapes dates back to 6000 B.C.E., and large-scale production, based on archaeological evidence, appears to...

Wine Basics

Although wine making, like beer manufacture, involves an alcoholic fermentation, the similarities, for the most part, end there. The wine fermentation requires different yeasts and substrates and yields distinctly different products. And whereas beer is best consumed fresh, most wines improve markedly during an aging period that can last for many years. Finally, although most wines, like most beers, start with relatively inexpensive raw materials, the quality of premium wines depends, more so than any other fermented product, on the quality of the raw material used in their manufacture.

Mixed Cultures

Other publications deal adequately with the subject of single-cell process. The key success of single-culture process is to provide the culture with a sterile substrate and environment with no contamination during the process. Single-cell process is a manmade situation classified as a controlled process because the substrate is prepared and processed in such a way as to minimize contamination. Examples of this type of process are wine making, beer making, bread making, single-culture dairy product fermentation, and vinegar production. The kinetics of growth and product formation are easier to control and monitor.

Sulfur Compounds

The other major group of sulfur compounds found in wine are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and related aqueous forms that exist as sulfite ions. These substances are produced naturally by yeast, and are invariably present in wine, albeit at concentrations usually less than 50 mg L. However, sulfur dioxide and bisulfite salts are now commonly added to must due to their strong antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antibrowning properties. It is important to recognize that these activities occur only when the SO2 is in its free, un-bound form.When bound or fixed with other wine compounds, such as acetaldehyde, reducing sugars, and sugar acids, SO2 activity is diminished. How SO2 specifically functions in wine and its important role in wine making will be further discussed later.

Procedures

You will notice that these heads have a terribly pungent smell and you can congratulate yourself that you won't be drinking them. They are highly inflammable and make an excellent fondue fuel or starter fluid for the barbecue. As the heads are bled off the temperature will slowly rise to a value just above 78oC*, indicating that most of the heads have now been drawn off and ethyl alcohol is beginning to appear. A word must be said here about the accuracy of thermometers. A thermometer purchased from a scientific supply house should be accurate to 0.1 oC. but don't count on it. Thermometers purchased at a drugstore or a winemaker's supply store can be off by as much as 2 degrees. We recommend that you always check the accuracy of a thermometer by placing it in boiling water and recording the temperature. You may be lucky and find you have purchased one which reads 100 oC. but if it doesn't, simply make a note of the deviation and apply the appropriate correction whenever you use it to...

Spoilage by bacteria

The acetic acid bacteria that are most important in wine spoilage belong to one of three genera Acetobacter, Gluconoacetobac-ter, and Gluconobacter. The main species involved in wine spoilage are Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Gluconobacter oxydans. They are Gram negative, catalase-positive rods capable of oxidizing alcohols to acids. These bacteria also are considered as obligate aerobes however, it now appears that limited growth and metabolism can occur even under the mostly anaerobic conditions that prevail during wine making. Although acetic acid bacteria are generally found at relatively low levels in vineyards and in must (< 100 cells per g), moldy or bruised grapes can contain appreciably higher levels. If the ethanol fermentation occurs soon after harvesting and crushing, then growth of these organisms, especially G. oxydans, is inhibited and numbers may actually decline.When the fermentation is complete and the wine is drawn off and subsequently...

Activated Charcoal

Activated charcoals are 'custom built' for their end purpose, generally involving careful selection of ingredients and very high temperature and gas treatment. They work by physical adsorption (not absorption) on the enormous internal surface area of the carbon, typically 1,000 square metres per gram (hard to believe, but true ). Note that it is a physical and not a chemical effect that makes them work. It pays to be very careful about choosing the source and type of activated carbon you use to clean a spirit. Aquarium carbon will not do It is an impure substance not designed to be used with products intended for human consumption, and it may well introduce rather nasty trace elements and flavours to your hard won product. Properly sourced activated charcoal is now readily available from winemakers' suppliers, specifically designed for the purpose of cleaning and 'polishing' spirits.

In quantity

SOONER or later, most winemakers are not content to make just one gallon of their favourite wines their thoughts turn to the idea of making them in larger quantities, say 4 , 5, or 6 gallons, or even more. Many winemakers make 20 or 30 gallons of their favourite wine each year and this bulk method has much to commend it. Many winemakers are nervous of attempting, say, five gallons of one wine, but it is a fact that five gallons is much less liable to go wrong than one, if ordinary precautions are observed. Utensils for making wines in quantity are a gas or electric boiler holding, say 5 gallons. A Baby Burco I find ideal it is even marked out in gallons internally. Such a boiler can often be picked up second-hand for next to nothing and is easily cleaned. A large plastic dustbin (11 gallon size) is useful, so is a fruit crusher to avoid having to cut up large quantities of fruit. A press you can do without at a pinch, and use a pectin-destroying enzyme to break down the fruit instead....

Judging

Judging procedure is set out in detail in Judging Homemade Wine and wine clubs will find it fascinating to study these clear directions and arrange competitions to give their members judging practice. This can be done by having, say, up to ten bottles of wine available and giving each member a judging sheet on which are set out the possible points to be scored under each heading. To assist in a complete split-down of the marking, it helps if all the markings normally used by Guild judges are doubled (this, of course, does not affect the end result) and printed marking sheets so devised for practice judging are available from the Amateur Winemaker.

Single boiler system

A third option is to purchase flavouring essence from a winemaker's supply store these little bottles of essence come in a wide variety of flavours including rum, scotch, brandy, gin, etc. and most liqueurs such as the various fruit brandies, cr me-de-menthe, etc. The fruity essences are particularly good, and the rum flavorings are quite acceptable, but the whiskies frequently leave something to be desired, having a somewhat artificial flavour. The quality may, of course, vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Articles on gin-making stress the point that the country of origin of the juniper berries is important in determining flavour, as is the time of harvest and the weather prevailing during the growing season. The juniper berries are supposed to mature for 18 months or so after harvest and then used within a critical period of one week It is all very reminiscent of wine-making. The amateur cannot possibly cope with such stringent requirements, but one is led to wonder just how...

Making Your Own Wine

Making Your Own Wine

At one time or another you must have sent away for something. A

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