World War Ebooks Catalog
The well-known Cohn fractionation process, originally developed in the 1940s to isolate albumin as a blood volume expander during World War II, relies primarily on a series of ethanol fractionation steps to separate the various proteins of human blood plasma from one another according to their solubility behavior in the presence of ethanol (25). As the role of other plasma components became recognized, such as factors VIII and IX for the treatment of clotting disorders and IgG for use in passive immunization, higher yield and higher purity large-scale purification methods for these components were sought, and the importance of adsorption techniques grew.
Microbial biomass which is produced for human or animal consumption is referred to as single cell protein (SCP). Although yeast was produced as food on a large scale in Germany during the First World War (Laskin, 1977) the concept of utilizing microbial biomass as food was not thoroughly investigated until the 1960s. Since the 1960s, a large number of industrial companies have explored the potential of producing SCP from a wide range of carbon sources. Almost without exception, these investigations have been based on the use of continuous culture as the growth technique.
Brazed-aluminum-plate-fin heat exchangers (or core exchangers or cold boxes) as they are sometimes called, were first manufactured for the aircraft industry during World War II. In 1950, the first tonnage air-separation plant with these compact, lightweight, reversing heat exchangers began producing oxygen for a steel mill. Aluminum-plate-fin exchangers are used in the process and gas-separation industries, particularly for services below -45 C.
A research team led by Chaim Weizmann in Great Britain during the First World War (1914-1918) developed a process for the production of acetone by a deep liquid fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum which led to the eventual use of the first truly large-scale aseptic fermentation vessels (Hastings, 1978). Contamination, particularly with bacteriophages, was often a serious problem, especially during the early part of a large-scale production stage. Initially, no suitable vessels were available and attempts with alcohol fermenters fitted with lids were not satisfactory as steam sterilization could not be achieved at atmospheric pressure. Large mild-steel cylindrical vessels with hemispherical tops and bottoms were constructed that could be sterilized with steam under pressure. Since the problems of aseptic additions of media or inocula had been recognized, steps were taken to design and construct piping, joints and valves in which sterile conditions could be achieved and...
In the early 1900s, butanol was used to produce butadiene, the most desirable raw material for synthetic rubber. The annual production of fermentation-derived bu-tanol was over 45 million pounds during 1945. But the fermentation-derived butanol process declined after World War II in the U.S. due to both changes in availability of renewable feedstocks (molasses, sugarcane) and the increase in availability of inexpensive petrochemical feedstocks. Butanol fermentation of beet molasses continued through the 1970s in the Soviet Union, and fermentation of sugarcane molasses continued through the 1980s in South Africa. In China, butanol was still produced fermen-tatively until recently, but the last viable industrial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation in the Western world was carried out by National Chemical Products
In post-war years there has been an astonishing revival of home winemaking in Britain wine, it is true, has been made here for centuries, but sugar scarcity during World War II and lack of opportunity debarred many from taking up the pastime, and it was left to the few to keep our craft alive. Now, however, it is attracting the interest of thousands, and scientific developments and the spread of wine-making knowledge have made it possible for anyone to produce a palatable wine in their own home.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the ability of bone char to take the color out of liquids was discovered by the sugar industry in England. At the beginning of the 20th century, methods of activating carbon with chemicals or by use of steam were discovered. During the First World War, steam activated coconut char was developed in the United States for gas masks. Today, many different materials - not only carbon - can be processed to develop selective adsorption of a wide variety of substances, and these techniques are used extensively in many industrial processes and the manufacture of foods, beverages, and medicines.
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