Fermentation Process Validation

The detailed approach to fermentation process validation is dependent on the nature of the process - whether it is based on intra- or extracellular accumulation of product whether the producing strain has particular sensitivities or characteristics and the characteristics of the product itself. The validation plan must be prepared with an understanding of how the fermentation works. The questions of how and why the system responds in a particular manner should be considered and, ideally,...

Production of Vitamin B12

Since the chemical synthesis of vitamin B12 involves a highly complicated, 70 step synthesis, vitamin Bi2 has been produced at industrial scale by fermentation using selective strain improvement by mutation followed by optimization of the fermentation process. Random mutagenesis is frequently used to improve production of vitamin B12 in several Bt2 producing species including Pseudomonas sp. and Propionibacterium sp. By using random mutagenesis combined withmethods of genetic engineering, a...

Nuttha Thongchul and Shang Tian Yang

Bioreactor Fermentation Broth

Department of Chemical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 140 West 19th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 Filamentous fungi are widely used in industrial fermentations. However, the filamentous moiphology is usually difficult to control and often cause problems in conventional submerged fermentations. The fungal moiphology has profound effects on mass transfer, cell growth, and metabolite production. Controlling the filamentous morphology by immobilization on a rotating fibrous matrix was studied...

Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Corynebacteria

Distillation Alcohol

Kaori Nakata, Masayuki Inui, Peter B. Kos, Alain A. Vertfes, and Hideaki Yukawa Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, 9-2 Kizugawadai, Kizu, Soraku, Kyoto 619-0292, Japan Corynebacterium glutamicum and related species are microorganisms of biotechnological significance. These bacteria have a long history of use for the production of fine chemicals such as amino acids and organic acids. Moreover, they have recently been contemplated for the production of xenogeneic proteins,...

Production of 5Aminolevulinic Acid and Vitamin Bi2 Using Metabolic Engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Pornpimon Kiatpapan1, Nitjakarn Kanamnuay2, Boonsri Jongserijit2, Yong Zhe Piao3, Mitsuo Yamashita3, and Yoshikatsu Murooka3' 'Biochemistry Unit, School of Science, Rangsit University, Patumthani 12000, Thailand department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakorn, Pathom 73000, Thailand department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan Metabolic engineering of Propionibacterium sp. by expression of genes...

Dyes

Azo dyes are one of the most commonly used synthetic dyes in textile, food, papermaking and cosmetic industries 31-33 . Release of azo dyes into the environment has become a major concern in wastewater treatment since some azo dyes or their metabolites may be mutagens or carcinogens 34 . Azo dyes are often considered xenobiotics and recalcitrant aerobically, and conventional aerobic wastewater treatment processes usually cannot efficiently decolorize azo-dye-contaminated effluents 32,33,35 ....

An Overview

Fermentation Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604 Various commodity chemicals such as alcohols, polyols, organic acids, amino acids, polysaccharides, biodegradable plastic components, and industrial enzymes can be produced by fermentation. This overview focuses on recent research progress in the production of a few chemicals ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, lactic acid,...

Protein targeting into three different compartments of E coli

E. coli, as it being a gram-negative bacterium, has two membranes which make 3 different compartments cytoplasm, periplasm and culture medium . The decision to target a protein to a specific cellular compartment rests on balancing the advantages and disadvantages of expressing the protein at each compartment 45 . Overproduction of recombinant proteins in the cytoplasm is frequently accompanied by their misfolding and segregation into insoluble aggregates known as inclusion bodies. Formation of...

Discussion

The defined medium we developed was able to support rapid growth up to 50 OD595 and produce extracts with similar performance to that of traditionally prepared extracts. Simply going to a higher cell density will provide a 15-fold improvement in the yield of extract from a fermentation. Preliminary tests indicate that phosphate is limiting the maximum cell density if acetate does not accumulate to high levels. For the fermentation presented in Figures 7 and 8, the final sample contained only 52...

Ying Zhu and Shang Tian Yang

Fed Batch Fermentation

Department of Chemical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 140 West 19th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 Butyric acid has wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Its production by fermentation from natural resources has become an increasingly attractive alternative to the petroleum-based production route currently used in the chemical industry. In this work, novel metabolic engineering approaches, at both molecular biology and process engineering levels, were developed for...

High Density Defined Media Culture for the Production of Escherichia coli Cell Extracts

Lodes, A. Shah, and J. R. Swartz Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5025 Cell-free protein synthesis systems use a crude cell extract to produce proteins. While these systems have many advantages over in vivo expression systems, the current procedures for preparation of die cell extract are very labor-intensive. In addition, since they start with low cell density cultures, the methods yield small amounts of final...

Sago Industry

Modern Sago Production

Sago palm is very efficient in photosynthesizing biomass from carbon dioxide, potentially producing 15-20 t of starch per ha per year. This is the highest productivity so far recorded when compared to cereals such as rice, and the other starchy crops 18 . This is an extremely high yield. In Sarawak, Malaysia and Riau, Indonesia, sago plantations are under development 19 . In the near future, these plantations will be ready for the starch harvesting. Photosynthesis is the best process for the...

References

1 Tang YJ, Zhong JJ 2000 Submerged fermentation of higher fungi for production of valuable metabolites a review . In Zhong JJ, ed. Advances in Applied Biotechnology in English . Shanghai East China University of Science and Technology Press, pp. 104-118. 2 Sone Y, Okuda R, Wada N, Kishida E, Misaki A 1985 Structures and antitumor activities of the polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body and the growing fermentation of mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49 2641-2653. 3 Hikino...

Microbial Production of Mannitol

In recent years, research efforts have been directed towards production of polyols by fermentation and enzymatic means 70 . Lactic acid bacteria LAB , yeasts and filamentous fungi are known to produce mannitol. Several heterofermentative LAB belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus have been reported to produce mannitol effectively 77 . In addition to mannitol, these bacteria may produce lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide and ethanol. Martinez et al. 12 reported...

Submerged Fermentation of the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum for Production of Polysaccharide and Ganoderic Acid

Pgm Pathway

Jian-Jiang Zhong, Ya-Jie Tang, and Qing-Hua Fang State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering China , East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China email jjzhong ecust.edu.cn Effects of oxygen supply and lactose feeding on submerged cultures of Ganoderma lucidum were investigated. A higher KL2l value led to a higher biomass density and a higher productivity of both intracellular polysaccharide and ganoderic acid. In a stirred bioreactor, at an initial KLa of 78.2...

Engineering Perspectives of Glycoconjugate Fermentation

There are many factors affecting the biosynthesis of carbohydrates of glycoconjugates such as the cell types, medium composition, and environmental conditions. Although comprehensive studies regarding the research area have not been reported, numerous significant findings of glycoproteins have been achieved as follows. Choose of Appropriate Hosts and Media Eukaryotic expression systems are required for complex recombinant proteins. Among the eukaryotic hosts, yeasts including Saccharomyes and...