Recipes the year round

THE recipes are given under the months in which they are usually made, so that your winemaking can be practised all the year round, but they are also indexed alphabetically at the back of the book so that any one can be quickly found. Recipes are given in British measures but these are easily converted to U.S. or metric measures. The pound measure of weight is the same in Britain, Canada and U.S.A., and 1 lb. equals kilo. The Imperial or English gallon as used in Britain and Canada is 8 pints,...

November

2 lb. dried apricots 1 lb. wheat Cut up the apricots, put into one gallon of water, and bring to the boil simmer for half-an-hour, then strain (without pressing). Add the other ingredients to the liquor and, when cool enough, add the yeast, and ferment for three weeks, closely covered, in a warm place, stir daily. Strain into a fermenting bottle, make up with cold water to one gallon, fit air lock, and ferment for a further month. Then strain, bottle, and cork tightly. 2 lemons (Juice only)...

Homebrew

1 lb. pure malt extract 1 lb. sugar 1 oz. hops 1 gallon water teaspoon salt Yeast Dissolve the malt extract, sugar and salt in the warmed water then add most of the hops and boil for hour, adding the remainder of the hops five minutes before the end. Strain into a wide-necked jar so that it is filled to within 1 inches of the top, and cover well. When cool add the yeast which should be dried brewer's or lager type. The ferment should be complete within a week. When quite sure the ferment is...

June

1 pint wallflower blossoms lb. minced sultanas 2 lb. sugar Juice of 2 lemons 1 teaspoon grape tannin Water to 1 gallon Yeast and nutrient Put the sugar, minced sultanas, and flowerlets into a polythene bucket and pour over them 3 quarts hot (not boiling) water. Stir vigorously. When cool add the lemon juice, tannin, and a general-purpose wine yeast, and ferment, well covered, for not more than three days. Strain into fermentation jar, top up with cold boiled water to bottom of neck, fit...

April

1 gallon primroses 3 V2 lb. white sugar Bring the water to the boil and stir into it the sugar, making sure that it is all dissolved. Put the peel of the oranges and lemon into a crock, bowl, or polythene bucket, being careful to exclude all white pith, to prevent the wine from having a bitter taste, and pour the hot syrup over the rinds. Allow to cool to 70 degrees F., then add the flowers, the juice of the fruit, your chosen yeast, and some yeast nutrient. Cover closely and leave for five...

Correct Mashing

Many people do not realise that when using malt, as distinct from malt extract, one of the most important factors in the production of good quality home-brewed beer is the correct mashing, or extraction of maltose from the malt. In this the temperature of the water plays a most important part. The operating temperature of the first fermentation should be between 130 degrees and 150 degrees F. It should never rise above 150 degrees F. The amateur often has great difficulty in keeping to these...

Conducting your fermentation

NOW let us get on with the making of an orthodox country wine. If you are fermenting a juice, or a liquor with no solid ingredients left in it, it can well go straight into a fermenting jar which, however, should not be filled beyond the shoulder, and a fermentation trap fitted. (If you fill your jar the ferment, in its first vigour, will foam out through the trap.) The yeast and yeast nutrient are added at the same time and the jar is placed in a warm place, about 70 deg. F. A warm kitchen is...

Preparation

Bring a convenient quantity of water to the boil, 3 gallons if you have a 4-gallon boiler. Add salt, then put in herbs and simmer for 45 minutes. When hops are used, some of the fragrance is lost in the steam. So keep a handful back till the last five minutes of the infusion. Allow to cool for a few minutes. This gives the herbs time to settle and makes decanting easier. Put the sugar and malt into the fermenting vessel. Strain the near-boiling infusion of herbs into the vessel, and stir well...

September

This is a truly delicious wine, and although apparently heavy on fruit is well worth making. It is strong yet delicately flavoured, with an attractive, faintly cidery bouquet. 24 lb. mixed windfall apples 3 lb. preserving sugar to the gallon of liquor Chop the apples into small pieces, put into a bowl, add the yeast and water (the water will not cover the apples). Leave for about a week, stirring vigorously several times a day to bring the apples at the bottom to the top. Keep the pan closely...

The malolactic fermentation

OCCASIONALLY one comes across what is really a third fermentation, the malo-lactic fermentation. This occurs usually after the wine has been bottled, and often as much as a year or more after it was made. It is something which should be welcomed, when it does occur, for it imparts a very pleasant freshness to a white wine, and does reduce the acidity a little. For this last reason it is important to the winemakers of Austria, Germany and Switzerland, whose grapes tend to contain slightly more...

What wine is

TRUE wine is the product of the grape, we are often reminded, but any winemaker of experience will assure you that we have no cause to feel in any way ashamed of the country wines which can be produced from our native fruits, berries and flowers. Many of these sound wines, robust or delicate according to character, dry or sweet according to one's taste, are truly wines in their own right, quite capable of standing comparison with many which can be obtained commercially. You may find this...

Wine vocabulary

AEROBIC FERMENTATION A fermentation conducted in the presence of air. Usually the first part of the fermentation process. ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION A fermentation from which air is excluded the second part of the fermentation process. CAMPDEN TABLETS Useful in winemaking for various sterilisation or purification purposes. They supply sulphur dioxide in convenient form. CARBON DIOXIDE The colourless, odourless gas given off by a fermenting liquor. DRY A wine is said to be dry when all the sugar in...

Christmas Drinks

ANGELICA LIQUEUR And here is a recipe for a Christmas luxury, by Mrs Betty Parker, of Whitchurch, 1 oz. Angelica stem 1 pint brandy 1 oz. boned bitter almonds 1 pint syrup made with Steep the angelica and almonds in the brandy for a week, then strain off and add the syrup to the liquor. Improves with keeping if you can keep it 1 small glass cherry brandy 1 glass brandy 1 sliced lemon Heat wine, honey, lemon, nutmeg, sugar to near boiling point then add brandy and cherry brandy and lastly the...

Clearing

NORMALLY a well-made wine will clear of its own accord, given time (which can be as much as a year in some cases) but when it does not, it may be necessary to resort to fining or filtering. The best advice that we can give, however, is always give your wine a chance to clear naturally. Avoid fining, which may upset the chemical balance of the wine, and filter only as a last resort, for filtering does take something out of a wine besides the murkiness. Usually all that is necessary is to move...

Bottling

IT is better to use, if you can, true wine bottles (26 2 3 ozs.) they show your wine off to better advantage. Be sure that they have been sterilised, and always use new corks or stoppers (cork, NOT screw, stoppers). Red wines, of course, should be put into dark bottles (except for exhibition or competitive purposes) or they will lose their glorious colour. The bottles can be sterilised by means of the sulphite solution already described, and then drained there is no need to dry them thoroughly...

The quickest way

I MUST not forget to say a word about the grape juice concentrates which are now on the market and which are a real boon to the winemaker who is anxious to see results quickly, yet at a reasonable price. Grape juice concentrate, of course, will make true wine, and at a price far below that of wine bought in a shop, and by using it one can avoid all the cookery aspect of making wine at home. Consequently many people are by-passing the flavour extraction part of the hobby nowadays and making wine...

A fascinating craft

IF you are toying with the idea of trying your hand at winemaking, delay no longer. Go right ahead By so doing you will be joining the thousands of happy folk who, in recent years, have discovered this intriguing and rewarding hobby. It is, indeed, a pastime which truly brings its own rewards, for there can be few pleasures to equal that of being able to offer a friend, and enjoy with him, a glass of one's own wine. In post-war years there has been an astonishing revival of home winemaking in...

Do

Keep all your equipment spotlessly clean. Keep your first ferment closely covered. Keep air away from the secondary fermentation. Keep all bottles full to within in. of cork. Strain liquor off must slowly and thoroughly. Make wines too dry rather than too sweet sugar them later. Use yeast nutrient regularly, and reliable yeast. Add sugar by stages. Keep detailed records. Rack at least once, and preferably twice or thrice. Taste the wine you are making, at intervals. Always use new corks or...

July

REDCURRANT, WHITECURRANT or BLACKCURRANT WINE (1) 1 gallon blackcurrants 3 lb. sugar to every gallon 1 gallon boiling water of juice Strip the currants, wash them very thoroughly, and put them in a large vessel. Bruise well to extract the juice, and pour on the boiling water there should be sufficient to cover the fruit completely. Leave it until the next day, then strain through a coarse cloth, pressing the currants well. Measure the juice, and add sugar in the above proportion. When the sugar...

Fermenting

Tie a cloth or secure a sheet of polythene with elastic over the vessel to keep out the flies. The ideal temperature is 65-75 degrees F., that is, about the range of a room in summertime. Cooler temperatures mean slower fermentation. This is no advantage in beer-making it merely holds up regular production, so find a warm corner for the brew, or else use some simple heater, in cold weather. A thick foam builds up on the surface within 24 hours skim this off. It contains...

January

1 lb. barley 1 lb. raisins 1 lb. potatoes 3 lb. preserving sugar Yeast, yeast nutrient 1 gallon hot water The juice of two lemons 1 Campden tablet Scrub (or peel if old) and chop the potatoes grind the barley and raisins in a mincer, having soaked the grain in a pint of the water overnight. Put sugar, barley, potatoes and raisins in bowl and pour on hot (not necessarily boiling) water. Add the juice of the lemons. Allow to cool until tepid add the crushed Campden tablet, yeast and nutrient....

Canadian Lager

This recipe, for a lager specially suited to the Canadian palate, is one advocated by Wine-Art Sales Ltd., of Box 2701, Vancouver 8, B.C. 1 six Imperial gallon primary fermentation vessel (plastic preferred), 1 five Imperial gallon plastic or glass carboy and fermentation lock, 1 five-foot syphon tube, 1 plastic sheet (1 yd. sq.) to cover primary vessel, 1 Specific Gravity or Brix hydrometer and testing jar, 1 stainless steel or enamel vessel, not less than 1 Imperial gallon, 1 wooden or...

December

3 lb. beetroot 3 lb. granulated sugar 6 doves 1 gallon water Yeast and nutrient Juice of 1 lemon Small piece of ginger Wash the beetroot well, but do not peel cut them up and boil them in some of the water until tender but not mushy. Strain on to the sugar, lemon juice, spices, and the rest of the water, and stir until the sugar is dissolved. When the liquor is cool stir in the yeast, then cover closely, and leave in a warm place, giving it a stir each day. After three days strain the liquor...

Sugar

Malt by itself contains enough fermentable sugar to make an alcoholic drink. In fact German law refuses to recognize a malt liquor brewed with added sugar as beer at all. But the home brewer is not a purist. He cannot afford to be, with malt the price it is. By adding sugar he can make his beer much stronger than is normally sold over the bar he can make it keep better and he has a wide range of new flavours to play with, since each type of sugar will add its own particular fragrance. Honey is...

Barley Wine

2 ozs. flaked rice or 4 ozs. polished barley sulphate 1 level teaspoon gypsum V teaspoon salt 1 Campden tablet 1 gallon water Champagne yeast Pick over and then put malted barley and adjunct through mincer to form the grist. Heat one gallon of water to 68 degrees C. in 12-pint saucepan on very low gas add grist and maintain temperature at 62-68 degrees C. for two hours. Strain through kitchen sieve and then replace wort in saucepan, add hops and gypsum and boil for 40 minutes. Strain again,...

Winemaking Circles

WINEMAKING as an organised hobby is a comparatively new thing, although wines have been made in these islands for centuries in the cottages of country folk. It was only in 1953 that the first Winemakers' Circle was formed at Andover, closely followed quite independently and spontaneously by others at Welwyn Garden City and Cheltenham. In the few years since, however, the idea has spread with astounding speed, and by 1968 there were well over 400 such clubs, scattered the length and breadth of...

Milk Stout

2 lb. patent black malt 6 oz. flaked barley 2 lb. glucose (powdered) 1 pkt. dried brewing yeast 4 gallons water 1 pkt. vitamin yeast food 1 oz. of hops 1 teaspoonful of salt Bring the water in the boiler to 150 degrees F., add the malt and flaked barley. Keep at a steady 140-150 degrees F. for four hours. Great care should be taken that the temperature does not exceed 150 degrees F. during the whole of the four-hour period, for this is important in the extracting of the maltose, and is almost...

Tap Jars

In this case it is advisable to fill to the shoulder only (this gives you four gallons) and put any surplus brew in bottles. The space left in the shoulder gives room for the gas pressure to build up. Otherwise, you risk blowing out the tap, or bursting the jar. To prime, make a syrup by dissolving 2 lb. of caster sugar in one pint of boiling water. Allow to cool and keep stoppered up in a sterilized flagon. For a 4-gallon jar, take 3 oz. of this syrup and add to the brew in the jar while you...

Making up a starter bottle

IF you do purchase a wine yeast, of whatever sort, it will usually be supplied in only a small quantity and will have to be activated for use. All this means is that you start it working, and therefore multiplying, so as to build up a much larger number of active yeast cells for introduction to the must. The principle is the same in most cases. Instead of adding the wine yeast direct to the must, one starts it off in a specially-prepared bottle of sterilised fruit juice of some sort, and...

Wine yeasts

ONE of the big strides which has been made in winemaking is that there are now available to the amateur many excellent varieties of special wine yeasts, in either culture or tablet form. Their value is unquestioned, for there are innumerable varieties of yeasts, all with different characteristics, and just as some are more suitable for baking or beerbrewing, so others are better for the production of quality wine. A good wine yeast has a high alcohol tolerance (i.e., it will allow the wine to...

Refinements

THESE are the bare essentials, but undoubtedly as you progress in winemaking you will add other pieces of desirable equipment a thermometer, a hydrometer for calculating the strength of your wine, glass tubing for taking samples, small funnels, casks, stone jars, tie-on labels for jars and stick-on labels for bottles, a corking device, a cork borer, jelly bags for straining, a bottle-cleaning brush, and perhaps a small press or one of the quite inexpensive juice extractors now obtainable which...

Getting the flavour

THERE are several ways of extracting the required flavour from our fruit or vegetables pressing, using juice extractors, or boiling, soaking in hot or cold water, and fermenting on the pulp and there are advantages to each which one uses depends on the wine being made and the equipment available (which usually means how much one is prepared to spend ). Sometimes one first extracts the juice from all the ingredients and starts the fermentation right away. The straight juice may be fermented, but...

October

3 lb. mulberries 2 lb. sugar 1 Campden tablet 1 gallon water 4 ozs. raisins Yeast and nutrient Wash the mulberries, having removed the stalks, and chop and mince the raisins. Pour on the boiling water when cool add crushed Campden tablet, half the sugar, the nutrient, and the yeast. Stir well. Ferment for four days on pulp, then strain, add remaining sugar, and ferment, rack and bottle in usual way. A Bordeaux yeast is preferable. Really ripe pears, even sleepy ones, are best for your purpose....

Racking

Left The dean jar Into which the wine is racked must be at a lower level, Start the siphon by sucking the end of the rubber tube. Right A mare sophisticated syphon. The rubber tube is attached to the top of the glass tube, which an be pushed to any depth, Start by blowing on small tube. Tfiis syphon will not disturb sediment. left The dean jar Into which the wine is racked must be at a lower level, Start the siphon by sucking the end of the rubber tube. Right A mare sophisticated syphon. The...

Organising a wine competition

IF, as a winemaker, you wish to exhibit your wine competitively, you are not likely to encounter many difficulties, so long as you adhere rigidly to any conditions which are laid down in the show's schedule, and if your wine is up to standard, you may even win a prize If, however, you are a club secretary or official, or even are known locally as someone who knows a bit about wine,'.' you are liable suddenly to find yourself faced with a request by some flower show or other to lay down rules...

Cleanliness

COMPLETE cleanliness is most important to the wine-maker all his vessels, bottles and equipment must be not only visually clean but chemically clean. Airborne yeasts and vinegar bacteria (see The Vinegar Fly) can only be kept at bay by constant vigilance, and the simplest answer to the problem is to make up a sterilising solution. Dissolve two Campden tablets (ordinary fruit-preserving tablets, which are sodium metabisulphite and will give you the sulphur dioxide you need) and a saltspoon of...

Siphoning

You want to have the suction end of the siphon just above the sediment at the bottom of the fermenting vessel. The best way to do this is to have a length of glass tube (H in. bore) with a U-bend at one end, to bring the lower opening of the tube some in. above the bottom of the U. This tube, with your polythene piping fitted at the other end can be pushed straight down into the vessel till the U-bend rests on the bottom. The opening will then be sucking up the brew just above the level of the...

White

V pint canned pineapple juice 2 lbs. sugar 1 teaspoonful Pectozyme Bordeaux yeast Water to 1 gallon The sugar is poured into a gallon jar, the juices and nutrients, etc., are added and the jar is topped up to the shoulder with cold water. Vigorous stirring will dissolve the sugar and the yeast starter and Pectozyme are added immediately. This wine will ferment out to dryness in about 3-4 weeks at 75 deg. F. At the end of this time 2 Campden tablets should be added and the wine racked a week...

Sparkling wines

A MALO-LACTIC fermentation will give you a sparkling wine accidentally, as it were, but it is even more fun to make one deliberately. All you need is a suitable must apples, pears, gooseberries, rhubarb are all ideal ingredients a champagne yeast, and not too much sugar (about 2 lbs. to 1 gallon, or an S.G. of 1080-1085, giving a wine of about 10 ). Ferment this to dryness, rack twice, mature for about six months, and then bottle in champagne bottles, adding to each 1 level teaspoon of sugar...

Warning

Some plants and flowers are so poisonous that they must on no account be used for winemaking. Others are doubtful in that they may not be highly poisonous, particularly in the small quantities in which they might be employed in winemaking, but must still be highly suspect. The position is complicated by the fact that some substances used in winemaking, notably sugar and yeast, can sometimes neutralise poisons, so that occasionally safe wines may be made from apparently doubtful sources. But one...

NO yeast recipes

INCIDENTALLY, beware of all recipes which omit any mention of yeast, there is no such thing as a no yeast recipe for the simple reason that without yeast there can be no fermentation of the sort we want. Yeasts are everywhere about us in the air, in the soil, the bloom on fruit, in milk, in our mouths and will find their way into a fermentable liquor. If you use a no yeast recipe, you are really simply relying upon any natural yeast which may be on the fruit you used or, if you killed that with...

Sugars

MANY old recipes advocate far too much sugar, with the result that the winemaker is disappointed when the yeast fails to use most of it up, and be is left with a syrupy, almost undrinkable concoction. As a good rule of thumb, remember the figure 3 3 lbs. to the gallon of liquor for a medium wine. Half a pound less will usually produce a dry wine, half a pound more a sweet. Below 2 lbs. of sugar to the gallon the wine may not be strong enough to keep, above 3J it may well (although not always)...

Fermentation

THE alcohol which we seek as an ingredient of our wine is a by-product of the yeast's process of self-reproduction. When the yeast is put into a sugary solution, it begins to multiply vigorously, and in the complex chemical processes which ensue, the sugar is converted roughly half to alcohol by weight and half to carbon dioxide the babbles in your beer, wine, cider or champagne. It is an encouraging thought that for every bubble you see in your wine there is an equal weight of alcohol The...

Red

(or V lb. dried) 1 lb. raisins (or V pint red 1 teaspoon Pektolase Burgundy yeast and nutrient 2 lemons (or V oz. citric acid) Water to 1 gallon The ingredients are crushed and placed in a bucket and boiling water is poured over them. The water level is brought up to 1 gallon and when cool the yeast starter and Pektolase are added. The pulp is strained off after four days and thereafter fermentation continues in a gallon jar. Rack when all sugar has been used up (generally within a month) and...

The vinegar fly

THE worst possible mishap which can befall a winemaker is to have his wine at one stage or another turn to vinegar (from the French vinaigre sour wine), which it can quite easily do if vinegar bacteria are allowed access to it. These bacteria are, like yeasts, present everywhere about us, but are sometimes introduced to the wine by that obnoxious carrier, the vinegar fly. This tiny fly, which appears as if by magic around any fermenting liquor or fruit, is the wine-maker's biggest enemy it must...

August

. . . a readily available and very popular drink, with both kick and flavour . . . 6 lb. carrots 1 gallon water 4 lb. sugar Wash the carrots well but do not peel. Put into the water and bring to the boil then simmer gently until the carrots are very tender. Use the carrots for food, and strain the water. Make up to one gallon. In a bowl put the sugar, sliced oranges and lemons and pour over the hot liquid. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, and then stand until lukewarm. Then add the chopped...

February

15 oz. or 16 oz. tin peach slices teaspoon tannin 1 lb. sugar lb. malt extract 1 teaspoon citric acid 1 tablespoon pectic enzyme 1 nutrient tablet Sauternes wine yeast Water to one gallon The peaches can be bought in slices in either 15 oz. or 16 oz. tins, as halves in 16 oz. tins, or labelled white peaches in 16 oz, tins. Wine firms also sell peach pulp. One 15 oz. or 16 oz. tin of either will make, using the quantities in the recipe, a light dry table wine, but if a fuller-bodied wine is...

Cheshire Home Brew

2 gallons water 2 lb. crystal matt 1-lb. tin of Golden Syrup Teaspoonful of salt Bring the two gallons of water in the boiler up to 150 F. Add the malt and maintain at a temperature of 140-150 F. for four hours. It is most important that the temperature never exceeds 150 F. Strain off, and this leaves you with the wort. Add the hops and salt to the liquor and boil for an hour. Strain again and add the syrup. Allow to cool to 65 F. and add the yeast. Ferment at between 65 and 70 F. for four...

Herbs

Whichever method you use for extracting the good from the malt, the result is the same the more the malt, the more the body imparted to the finished drink. And the more the body the drink has, the more it will need some bitter herb added to it to counteract the heaviness and keep the palate clean. The vintner is not troubled in this way. Nothing need be added to grape juice, since it contains both acid and tannin which gives wine a natural astringency but malt contains neither, and so has to...

What you will need

DO not, at the outset, buy a lot of expensive equipment it is better to start making wine with what you have you probably have in your kitchen already some of the essentials and then to acquire the rest by stages as the necessity arises. For a start you will undoubtedly need some kind of boiler, and if you can lay your hands on one that will hold three to five gallons it will prove ideal. Failing that, you can make do with a one-gallon or one-and-a-half-gallon saucepan. Avoid containers and...

Herbs and flavourings

A simple and quick method of preparing herb wines of many varieties is by the use of a standard basic recipe, such as Barley Wine, with the addition of the necessary herbs or the herb flavour extracted into the water for making the wine by steeping the dried herbs or boiling the fresh herbs. Particular attention should be paid to obtaining the maximum extraction of the flavours and qualities of the herbs. Two ounces of dried herb usually suffice (a standard proprietary pack costing a few...

Winemaking summarised

Add sugar and yeast and ferment for up to 10 days in a bowl or crock, closely covered, at about 70 deg. F. (This may be simultaneous with (1) ). 3. Strain off, put into fermentation jar or bottle fit trap. Fill to bottom of neck. Temperature about 60 deg. This fermentation will be much quieter and will proceed for some weeks. 4. Rack the cleared wine. Repeat this about two months later, and, usually, a third time after a further month. By then the wine should be quite stable, with no risk of...

How yeast nutrient helps

TO obtain the best possible fermentation the yeast, like most living organisms, must have both food and oxygen. Like human beings, it needs both vitamins and fresh air The ideal medium for fermentation is pure grape juice, which contains all the nutrients, or foods, that the yeast requires, but some of the liquors we ferment for country wines (notably mead and all the flower wines) are deficient in them, and it is therefore wise to add a nutrient to give the yeast a boost, the nitrogenous...

F i

Also obtain several one-gallon glass jars for fermenting those with ear handles are the most popular and some rubber bungs and corks to fit. These jars can often be obtained cheaply from grocers, cafes, or hairdressers, for they are used for fruit squash and chemicals in bulk. On no account omit to buy or make as many fermentation traps (see separate chapter) as you are likely to need, for they are indeed the winemaker's best friend. You will also find it useful to collect -gallon bottles...

Andover

1 gallon water Brewer's (or dried) yeast 1 level teaspoon liquid gravy browning (caramel) Boil all the ingredients except the yeast together for 90 minutes add more water to restore the original volume. Strain, allow to cool until tepid, add yeast. Keep closely covered in a warm room for four days. Siphon off into strong bottles, avoiding disturbing the yeast deposit, pop half a lump of sugar into each bottle and tie down the corks with string. Keep in a really cool place. It should be ready to...

Malt

Malt serves the brewer in three ways it provides a form of sugar that can be turned into alcohol by the yeast it nourishes the yeast in the course of its work, and ensures that it does it well and it likewise nourishes the man who drinks the brew, since it contains a fair amount of unfermentable solids, rich in food value, which survive in the finished drink to give it flavour and body. The hydrometer reading of a finished beer is proof of this it will not, like a dry wine, fall to zero or...

Dont

Allow a single vinegar fly access to your wine at any stage. Use any metal vessel if the wine will be long in contact with it. Use any tools or containers of resinous wood. Try to speed a fermentation by too high a temperature. Be impatient making wine takes time. Let your wine stand on dead yeast or sediment. Filter unnecessarily or too soon most wines will clear of their own accord. Put wine in unsterilised bottles or jars. Bottle your wine whilst it is still fermenting. BUT surely you can't...

Boiled Water Buffalo Penis

Take a couple of young cocks, boil them almost to a jelly in water, and put them into four gallons of ale put in also a pound of raisins of the sun stoned infuse a pound of dates, mace and nutmegs, of each two ounces, in a quart of canary put them to the ale strain and squeeze out liquor, and put to it half a pint of new ale yeast. Let it work for a day you may drink it the next but it is better the third day you may make it weaker by mingling it with plain ale as you draw it, or you may put it...

Chamber of horrors

WHILST something must be said about faults and diseases of wine, it should be emphasised at once that several of these disasters which can befall your wines are rarely encountered. Observance of commonsense precautions will ensure that your wines are sound, and you may never need to refer to these particular pages. I hope you do not but just in case there are listed here some of the disasters most probable to be encountered. ACETIFICATION . . . or formation of vinegar. This will normally only...

Judging

Clarity and Colour Bouquet The first two factors he will assess before opening the bottle. He will look at its general appearance cleanliness, neatness and legibility of label, newness of cork, size of airspace, etc. . The bottle should be well polished and, needless to say, scrupulously clean. The judge will look through the neck of the bottle to judge the clarity of the wine, and at the conical punt at the bottom to judge its brilliance. Here there should not be the slightest trace of any...

Kiefer Brown

Put two gallons of water in a three-gallon boiler, and put third gallon by. Bring to boil. Add sugar, 2 oz. dried hops buy Heath and Heather packeted hops from chemists , bran, and two teaspoonsful of gravy browning the liquid variety which is only caramel colouring . Boil gently for 1V hours. Strain through muslin into crock and on to third gallon of cold water. Leave to cool until blood heat, then pour into three one-gallon jars, filling to shoulder only. Add brewer's yeast, if obtainable, or...

In quantity

SOONER or later, most winemakers are not content to make just one gallon of their favourite wines their thoughts turn to the idea of making them in larger quantities, say 4 , 5, or 6 gallons, or even more. Many winemakers make 20 or 30 gallons of their favourite wine each year and this bulk method has much to commend it. Many winemakers are nervous of attempting, say, five gallons of one wine, but it is a fact that five gallons is much less liable to go wrong than one, if ordinary precautions...

Winemaking

A complete month-by-month guide to winemaking including the production of cider, perry and mead and beer brewing at home, with over 130 tried and tested recipes The Amateur Winemaker, North Croye, The Avenue, Andover, Hants THIS little book really started as a collection of recipes, reliable recipes which had appeared in the monthly magazine, The Amateur Winemaker. First published in January 1960, it was an instant and phenomenal success, for a quarter of a million copies have been sold, and it...

March

Sycamore And Birch Sap Wine

4 lbs, of peeled bananas lb. of banana skins H lb. of raisins Yeast and nutrient 1 gallon of water 1 lemon, 1 orange 3 lbs. of sugar Use black or spotted bananas, whatever you can scrounge. Place bananas and fruit peel into a cloth bag and put the bag, tied up, into a large saucepan or boiler with the water. Bring to the boil, then gently simmer for half an hour. Pour the hot liquor over the sugar and fruit juice, and when the cloth bag has cooled squeeze it with the hands to extract as much...

The hydrometer

Read Hydrometer

IF the fermentation trap is the winemaker's best friend, it is certainly run a close second by the hydrometer. A hydrometer is by no means essential to the production of good wine, but it is a great help, particularly if one is aiming at consistent results. Many winemakers seem to fight shy of it but in principle it is quite a simple device by means of it one can a determine how much sugar there is in any natural juice or must b determine how much sugar to add to a juice to produce a wine of...

The fermentation trap

Fermentation Trap Airlock

IT is then that one needs to employ a fermentation trap. This is a simple device, being in effect an air-lock, and we illustrate what is undoubtedly the most popular and commonly used pattern, a glass U-tube with two bulbs. This is inserted in the bung or cork of the fermenting vessel so as to be an airtight fit this is important, or the lock will not work , and a good tip is to use rubber bungs rather than corks to ensure that there is no leakage. It is advisable to lightly grease the glass...