Effects Of The Number Of Trays Or Stages

Feed Tray Distillation Column

Here we will expand on the design of columns by looking briefly at the effects of p the number of trays, and p the position of the feed tray, and on the performances of distillation columns. Effects of the Number of Trays It can be deduced from the previous section on distillation column design that the number of trays will influence the degree of separation. This is illustrated by the following example. - Consider as a base case, a 10 stage column. The feed is a binary mixture that has a...

Distillation Column Design

Design Alcohol Distillation Column

As mentioned, distillation columns are designed using VLE data for the mixtures to be separated. The vapour-liquid equilibrium characteristics indicated by the shape of the equilibrium curve of the mixture will determine the number of stages, and hence the number of trays, required for the separation. This is illustrated clearly by applying the McCabe-Thiele method to design a binary column. The McCabe-Thiele approach is a graphical one, and uses the VLE plot to determine the theoretical number...

Factors Affecting Distillation Column Operation

Heat Balance Distallation Columns

The performance of a distillation column is determined by many factors, for example trace elements that can severely affect the VLE of liquid mixtures.-- 'p internal liquid and fluid flow conditions 'p state of trays packings weather conditions Some of these will be discussed below to give an idea of the complexity of the distillation process. The state of the feed mixture and feed composition affects the operating lines and hence the number of stages required for separation. It also affects...

Column Reboilers

Distillaton Column Design Procedure

There are a number of designs of reboilers. It is beyond the scope of this set of introductory notes to delve into their design principles. However, they can be regarded as heat-exchangers that are required to transfer enough energy to bring the liquid at the bottom of the column to boiling boint. The following are examples of typical reboiler types. Tube bundle photo courtesy of Paul Phillips Tube bundle photo courtesy of Paul Phillips Tubesheet photo courtesy of Paul Phillips Fitting a Shell...

Types Of Distillation Columns

There are many types of distillation columns, each designed to perform specific types of separations, and each design differs in terms of complexity. One way of classifying distillation column type is to look at how they are operated. Thus we have batch and p continuous columns. Batch Columns In batch operation, the feed to the column is introduced batch-wise. That is, the column is charged with a 'batch' and then the distillation process is carried out. When the desired task is achieved, a...

E

Distillation Equilibrium

Effects of the Number of Trays or Stages Distillation columns are designed based on the boiling point properties of the components in the mixtures being separated. Thus the sizes, particularly the height, of distillation columns are determined by the vapour liquid equilibrium VLE data for the mixtures. Vapour-Liquid-Equilibrium VLE Curves Constant pressure VLE data is obtained from boiling point diagrams. VLE data of binary mixtures is often presented as a plot, as shown in the figure on the...

Copyright Information

Document Title DISTILLATION ' -1- Base Document URL Author Ming T. Tham Email ming.tham ncl.ac.uk Date Oct. 1997 The copyright of this document and all locally linked documents belong to the author, Ming T. Tham, currently with the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. You must not make use of these pages for commercial gain or publish them on your own web site without the express permission of the author. If you wish to include parts of...

Basic Distillation Equipment And Operation

Distillation Basics

Main Components of Distillation Columns Distillation columns are made up of several components, each of which is used either to tranfer heat energy or enhance materail transfer. A typical distillation contains several major components p a vertical shell where the separation of liquid components is carried out p column internals such as trays plates and or packings which are used to enhance component separations p a reboiler to provide the necessary vaporisation for the distillation process p a...

An introduction

Distillation Alcohol

Costello and Associates, Iiil. Fur distillation design and troubleshqatlng Effects of the Number of Trays or Stages a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat. Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will be richer in the components that have lower boiling points. Therefore, when this vapour is cooled and condensed, the...

Column Internals

Distillation Separation Internals

The terms trays and plates are used interchangeably. There are many types of tray designs, but the most common ones are A bubble cap tray has riser or chimney fitted over each hole, and a cap that covers the riser. The cap is mounted so that there is a space between riser and cap to allow the passage of vapour. Vapour rises through the chimney and is directed downward by the cap, finally discharging through slots in the cap, and finally bubbling through the liquid on the tray. In valve trays,...