Ebulliometric Delta T

Yu, Chem. Ind. Eng. (China), 18 (2001) 390-394. 7 C.J. Liu, X.G. Yuan, S.Y. Wang, Y. Gao and G.C. Yu, Chem. Eng. (China), 30 (2002) 7-11. 8 B.T. Liu and C.J. Liu, Chinese J. Chem. Eng., 10 (2002) 517-521. 9 C.J. Liu and X.G. Yuan, Chinese J. Chem. Eng., 10 (2002) 522-528. 10 C.J. Liu, X.G. Yuan, K.T. Yu and X.J. Zhu, Chem. Eng. Sei., 55 (2000) 2287-2294. 11 H.R. Mortaheb, H. Kosuge and K. Asano, Chem. Eng. J., 88 (2002) 59-69. 12 J.M.V. Baten, J. Ellenberger and...

Module Performance

In previous sections of this chapter we focus on the performance of various MD configurations in lab-used membrane module. Because of small membrane area, there is almost no change in the fluid field when the fluid flows through the ducts of the module. Such parameters as the fluid temperature, velocity and mass flux through the membrane are maintained constant within the membrane module. Such module can be considered as a lumped system, and algebraic equations, as derived in previous sections,...

Adsorption distillation

Extractive Distillation

Two types of adsorption distillation, i.e. fixed-bed adsorption distillation FAD and suspension adsorption distillation SAD , are discussed in this chapter. In FAD the separating agent is stagnantly supported in the column as the catalyst in FCD, while in SAD the separating agent is constantly moving in the column as the catalyst in SCD. So in SAD the separating agent has the similar behavior in tray efficiency and hydrodynamics as the catalyst of catalytic distillation. 1. FIXED-BED ADSORPTION...

Fixedbed Catalytic Distillation

Mtbe Process Flow Diagram

Reactive separation processes such as reactive distillation, sorption-enhanced reaction absorption, reactive extraction and reaction crystallization combine the essential tasks of reaction and separation in a single vessel. The most important example of reactive separation processes RSP is reactive distillation RD . RD, the combination of chemical reaction and distillation in a single column, is one of the most important industrial applications of the multifunctional reactor concept. Since the...

Info

Steady-state analysis of the improved SCD column As mentioned before, if Fl the ilowrate of DIPB fed into the SCD column is equal to F2 the ilowrate of DIPB leaving from the SCD column in the improved SCD column, then the process reaches steady-state. In the simulation the operating condition is given as follows 1 The SCD column has 41 theoretical stages. The total condenser is the stage 41 and the reboiler the stage 1. 2 The feed stage of propylene is No. 28. 3 The feed stage of propylene...

Distilasyon Agent

It can be seen from the above that the higher the valence of metal ion is, the more obvious the salt effect is. That is to say, the order of salt effect is AICI3 gt CaCh gt NaCl2 A1 N03 3 gt Cu N03 2 gt KNO3. Besides, the effects of acidic roots are different, in an order of Ac gt CI gt NO3. 2 Separation of isopropanol and water Azeotropie distillation with benzene as the entra ner is also a conventional process for the isopropanol-water separation. The Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy industries IHI...

References

Eng. Sci., 55 2000 5183-5229. 2 E. Perez-cisneros, M. Schenk and R. Gani, Comput. Chem. Eng., 20 1996 S267-S272. 3 K. Sundmacher, G. Uhde and U. Hoffmann, Chem. Eng. Sci., 54 1999 2839-2847. 4 A.V. Solokhin and S.A. Blagov, Chem. Eng. Sci., 51 11 1996 2559-2564. 5 B. Saha, S.P. Chopade and S.M. Mahajani, Catal. Today, 60 2000 147-157. 6 S. Hauan, T. Hertzberg and K.M. Lien, Comput. Chem. Eng., 19 1995 S327-S332. 7 S. Hauan, T. Hertzberg and K.M. Lien, Comput....

Rt

To apply Eq. 61 to calculate Ki at middle pressure. As mentioned above, the equilibrium ratio K or phase equilibrium constant is an important physical quantity in solving four types of problems about P-T-x-y relation. Besides, for special distillation processes, especially with separating agents, we should pay more attention to another physical quantity, i.e. relative volatility or separation factor . The magnitude of relative volatility can be used as the index of whether the separation...

Fj

Where .Kkj is reaction rate, v, k is the stoichiometric coefficient of component in reaction k, e is reaction volume or amount of catalyst, not just reaction volume as in reactive extractive distillation. The assumptions of the EQ and NEQ stage models in CD are summarized in Table 2. Both model equations and solving procedures 88-98 are identical to reactive extractive distillation. Therefore, it is no need to describe them in detail again. Two cases about mathematical models will be...

Extractive Distillation

Azeotropic Distillation Graph

Then, one obtains the following relation for computing yi from x where if one x, or x2 is given, only one yi is corresponding. But it isn't true for the inverse. As can be seen from Fig. 1, in some liquid-phase region, three values of yi exist corresponding to only one x,. This indicates phase instability. Experimentally, single liquid phases can exist only for methanol-rich mixtures of xi 0.8248 to 1.0 G - 1 and for cyclohexane-rich mixtures ofxi 0.0 to 0.1291 0 - A . Since a coexisting vapor...

B

Homogeneous Azeotrope

Azeotropic distillation column Solvent recovery column Fig. 2. The double column process for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. Fig. 3. Binary T-x phase diagram at a fixed pressure for homogeneous azeotrope a azeotropic boiling point above but not far from the upper critical solution temperature adapted from the reference S. Widagdo and W.D. Seider 29 b azeotropic boiling point below the upper critical solution temperature usual behavior . Fig. 3. Binary T-x phase diagram at a fixed...

Theory Of Extractive Distillation

Until now, there are two theories related to extractive distillation, i.e. Prausnitz and Anderson theory which gives semi-quantitative explanations, and scaled particle theory which gives complete quantitative results. The two theories provide a molecular basis for explaining why some solvents can increase the relative volatility of the components to be separated and why more selective than others. Separation of hydrocarbon mixtures by extractive distillation has been practiced industrially for...

Experimental Techniques Of Extractive Distillation

The expressions of selectivity and relative volatility are given in Eqs. 1 and 2 , respectively. Since the activity coefficients depend on the phase compositions, and the role of the solvent tends to increase with an increase in its concentration, it is common practice to consider the situation at infinite dilution. Then from Eq. 2 the definition of selectivity at infinite dilution becomes which also represents the maximum selectivity. A relation analogous to Eq. 6 holds for the relativity...

Process Of Recovered Ipa Distillation In Distillation Columns Columns

Tray Distillation

The process of the combination of extractive distillation and azcotropic distillation In addition, the energy consumption of this process is greater than that of extractive distillation, but less than that of extractive distillation. So it is concluded that this process is especially suitable for the separation of requiring high purity of product. For instance, in the case of separating acetic acid and water, the concentration of acetic acid in water below 20ppm is required in...

Extractive distillation with solid salt

Definition of extractive distillation with solid salt In certain systems where solubility permits, it is feasible to use a solid salt dissolved into the liquid phase, rather than a liquid additive, as the separating agent for extractive distillation. The extractive distillation process in which the solid salt is used as the separating agent is called extractive distillation with solid salt. However, herein, the ionic liquids aren't included in the solid salts although they are a kind of...

Elseviersabre Foundation

With its unique advantages in operation and control, distillation is a very powerful separation tool in the laboratory and industry. Although many promising separation methods are constantly proposed by engineers and scientists, most of them are not able to compete with distillation on a large product scale. In this book, a new term, special distillation processes, is proposed by the authors and is the title of this book. This term signifies the distillation processes by which mixtures with...