## Insideout Methods

The BP, SR, and SC methods described above expend a large percentage of their computational effort during each iteration in the calculation of K values, enthalpies, and derivatives thereof. An algorithm designed to significantly reduce that effort was developed by Boston and Sullivan Can. J. Chem. Engr., 52, 52 (1974) . The MESH equations are solved in an inner loop using simple, approximate equations for K values and enthalpies. The empirical constants in these equations are determined and...

## Batch Distillation With Rectification

To obtain products with a narrow composition range, a rectifying batch still is used that consists of a pot (or reboiler), a rectifying column, a condenser, some means of splitting off a portion of the condensed vapor (distillate) as reflux, and one or more receivers. Temperature of the distillate is controlled in order to return the reflux at or near the column temperature to permit a true indication of reflux quantity and to improve column operation. A subcooling heat exchanger is then used...

## Info

FIG. 13-42 General adiabatic countercurrent cascade for simple absorption or stripping. FIG. 13-43 Absorption and stripping factors. W C. Edmister, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 3, 165-171 (1957). FIG. 13-43 Absorption and stripping factors. W C. Edmister, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 3, 165-171 (1957). is the effective or average stripping factor for component i. When the entering streams are at the same temperature and pressure and negligible absorption and stripping occur, effective component...

## Thielegeddes Stagebystage Method For Simple Distillation

Prior to the availability of digital computers, the most widely used manual methods for rigorous calculations of simple distillation were those of Lewis and Matheson (LM) Ind. Eng. Chem., 24, 496 (1932) and Thiele and Geddes (TG) Ind. Eng. Chem., 25, 290 (1933) , in which the equilibrium-stage equations are solved one by one by using tearing techniques. The former is a design method, in which the number of stages is determined for a specified split between two key components. Thus, it is a...

## Q

Calculate liquid densities, molar tray and condenser-reflux drum holdups, and liquor and vapor enthalpies. Determine holdup and enthalpy derivatives with respect to time by forward difference approximations. 5. From Eqs. (13-152) to (13-154) compute a new set of values of liquid and vapor molar flow rates. 6. Compute the reboiler molar holdup from Eq. (13-158). 7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 with a corrector step for the same time increment. Repeat again for any further predictor and or...

## Operating Methods

Batch Rectification at Constant Reflux Using an analysis similar to the simple batch still, Smoker and Rose Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., 36, 285 (1940) developed the following equation An overall component balance gives the average or accumulated distillate composition xDavg If the integral on the right side of Eq. (13-143) is labeled Q, the time 0 in hours for distillation can be found by Development of these equations is given by Block Chem. Eng., 68, 88 (Feb. 6, 1961) . The calculation...

## Equilibriumstage Concept

Until recently, energy and mass-transfer processes in an actual distillation column were considered too complicated to be readily modeled in any direct way. This difficulty was circumvented by the equilibrium-stage model, developed by Sorel in 1893, in which vapor and liquid streams leaving an equilibrium stage are in complete equilibrium with each other andthermodynamic relations can be used to determine the temperature of and relate the concentrations in the equilibrium streams at a given...

## Loss Percent Residue Distillation

Note Percent recovery 97.5 percent residue 1.0 percent loss convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, C ( F - 32) 1.8. note Percent recovery 97.5 percent residue 1.0 percent loss convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, C ( F - 32) 1.8. FIG. 13-82 Representative ASTM D 86 distillation curves. 20 40 60 80 Volume percent vaporized FIG. 13-82 Representative ASTM D 86 distillation curves. Data from a true-boiling-point (TBP) distillation test provides a much better theoretical basis for...

## Characterization Of Petroleum And Petroleum Fractions

Although much progress has been made in identifying the chemical species present in petroleum, it is generally sufficient for purposes of design and analysis of plant operation of distillation to characterize petroleum and petroleum fractions by gravity, laboratory-distillation curves, component analysis of light ends, and hydrocarbon-type analysis of middle and heavy ends. From such data, as discussed in the Technical Data Book Petroleum Refining American Petroleum Institute (API), Washington...

## Ideal Binary Distillation

Consider the closed-loop response during the dynamic distillation of an ideal binary mixture in the column shown in Fig. 13-107, under two assumptions of constant relative volatility at a value of 2.0 and constant molar vapor flow for a saturated liquid feed to tray Ns. Following the development by Luyben (op. cit.), it is not necessary to include energy-balance equations for each tray or to treat temperature and pressure as variables. Overhead vapor leaving top tray NT is totally condensed for...

## Applications Of Petroleum Distillation

Typical equipment configurations for the distillation of crude oil and other complex hydrocarbon mixtures in a crude unit, a catalytic-cracking unit, and a delayed-coking unit of a petroleum refinery are shown in Figs. 13-87, 13-88, and 13-89. The initial separation of crude oil into fractions is conducted in two main columns, shown in Fig. 13-87. In the first column, called the atmospheric tower or topping still, partially vaporized crude oil, from which water, sediment, and salt have been...

## Homotopycontinuation Methods

Although the SC and inside-out methods are reasonably robust, they are not guaranteed to converge and sometimes fail, particularly for very nonideal liquid solutions and when initial guesses are poor. A much more robust, but more time-consuming, method is differential arclength homotopy continuation, the basic principles and applications of which are discussed by Wayburn and Seader Comp. Chem. Engng., 11, 7-25 1987 Proceedings Second Intern. Conf. Foundations of Computer-Aided Process Design,...

## N

Flow, calculations are readily made of remaining values of Vj and Lj, from which initial values of vi,j and j are obtained from Eqs. 13-89 and 13-90 after obtaining approximations of xij and ,j from steps 4, 5, 8, 9, and 10 of the SR method. Alternatively, a much cruder but often sufficient estimate of Xy and yij is obtained by flashing the combined column feeds at average column pressure and a vapor-to-liquid ratio that approximates the ratio of overhead plus vapor-sidestream flows to bottoms...

## Calculational Methods

Rigorous Computer-Based Calculation Procedures It is obvious that a set of curves such as shown in Fig. 13-104 for a binary mixture is quite tedious to obtain by hand methods. The curves shown in Fig. 13-99 for a multicomponent batch distillation are extremely difficult to develop by hand methods. Therefore, since the early 1960s, when large digital computers became available, interest has been generated in developing rigorous calculation procedures for binary and multicomponent batch...

## Tbp Curve For Distillation Of Crude Oil And

FIG. 13-84 Comparison of ASTM, TBP, and EFV distillation curves for kero- batch distillation equipment that can achieve a good degree of fractionation is usually considered suitable. In general, TBP distillations are conducted in columns with 15 to 100 theoretical stages at reflux ratios of 5 or greater. Thus, the new ASTM D 2892 test method, which involves a column with from 14 to 17 theoretical stages and a reflux ratio of 5, essentially meets the minimum requirements. Distillate may be...

## Stage Efficiency

The mathematical models presented earlier for rigorous calculations of multistage, multicomponent distillation-type separations assume that equilibrium with respect to both heat and mass transfer is attained at each stage. Unless temperature changes significantly from stage to stage, the assumption that vapor and liquid phases exiting from a stage are at the same temperature is generally valid. However, in most cases, equilibrium with respect to mass transfer is not a valid assumption. If all...

## H

7246135,7261435,7264135, 7426135,7462135, 7621435, 7624135,7642135 7461325,7461352,7614325, 7614352,7641325,7641352 7246135,7261435,7264135, 7426135,7462135, 7621435, 7624135,7642135 7461325,7461352,7614325, 7614352,7641325,7641352 7461325,7614325,7641325, 6174325,6714325,6741325 1743256,1743526,7143256, 7143526,7413256.7413526 1325467,1325647,1352467, 1352647,1354267,1354627, 1356247.1356427 1432567,1435267,1435627 4132567,4135267.4135627 6143257, 6143275, 6143527, 6413257,6413275,6413527...

## Design Procedures

Two general procedures are available for designing fractionators that process petroleum, synthetic crude oils, and complex mixtures. The first, which was originally developed for crude units by Packie Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 37, 51 1941 , extended to main fractionators by Houghland, Lemieux, and Schreiner Proc. API, sec. III, Refining, 385 1954 , and further elaborated and described in great detail by Watkins op. cit. , utilizes material and energy balances, with empirical correlations...

## Phase Equilibrium Data

For a binary mixture, pressure and temperature fix the equilibrium vapor and liquid compositions. Thus, experimental data are frequently presented in the form of tables of vapor mole fraction y and liquid mole fraction x for one constituent over a range of temperature T for a fixed pressure P or over a range of pressure for a fixed temperature. A compilation of such data, mainly at a pressure of 101.3 kPa 1 atm, 1.013 bar , for binary systems mainly nonideal is given in Table 13-1. More...

## Solvent To Feed Ratio Uin Extractive Distillation

FIG. 13-75 Number of theoretical stages versus solvent-to-feed ratio for extractive distillation. a Close-boiling vinyl acetate-ethyl acetate system with phenol solvent. b Azeotropic acetone-methanol system with water solvent. no longer be achieved and the distillate purity actually decreases for a given number of stages LaRoche et al., AIChE J., 38, 1309 1992 . The difference between Rmin and Rmax increases as the S F ratio increases. Large amounts of reflux lowers the solvent concentration in...

## Most Polar Least Polar

Ketones and alcohols Table 13-21 , solvents favored for the recovery of methanol in the bottoms would come from groups more polar than methanol, such as acids, water, and polyols. Turning to the Robbins Chart Table 13-15 , favorable groups are amines, alcohols, polyols, and water since these show expected positive deviations for acetone and zero or negative deviations for methanol. For reversing the natural volatility, solvents should be chosen that are less polar than acetone, such as ethers,...

## Reactive Distillation

Introduction Reactive distillation is a unit operation in which chemical reaction and distillative separation are carried out simultaneously within a fractional distillation apparatus. Reactive distillation may be advantageous for liquid-phase reaction systems when the reaction must be carried out with a large excess of one or more of the reac-tants, when a reaction can be driven to completion by removal of one or more of the products as they are formed, or when the product recovery or...

## Threephase Flash

Single-stage equilibrium-flash calculations become considerably more complex when an additional liquid phase can form, as from mixtures of water with hydrocarbons. Procedures for computing such situations are referred to as three-phase flash methods, which are given for the general case by Henley and Rosen Material and Energy Balance Computations, Wiley, New York, 1968, chap. 8 . When the two liquid phases are almost mutually insoluble, they can be considered separately and relatively simple...

## Mass Balances With Azeotropes

FIG. 13-65 Valeric acid-water separation with formic acid. a Mass balances on distillation region diagram. b Conceptual sequence. be crossed. This may be done by mixing some external stream with the original feed stream in one region such that the resulting composition is in another region for further processing. However, the external stream must be completely regenerated, and mass-balance observed. For example, it is not possible to break a homogeneous binary azeotrope simply by adding one of...

## Difference Between Reactive Distillation And Extractive Distillation

In distillation operations, separation results from differences in vapor-and liquid-phase compositions arising from the partial vaporization of a liquid mixture or the partial condensation of a vapor mixture. The vapor phase becomes enriched in the more volatile components while the liquid phase is depleted of those same components. In many situations, however, the change in composition between the vapor and liquid phases in equilibrium becomes small so-called pinched condition , and a large...

## Applications Of Rcm And

Residue curve maps and distillation region diagrams are very powerful tools for understanding all types of batch and continuous distillation operations, particularly when combined with other information such as liquid-liquid binodal curves. Applications include 1. System visualization. Location of distillation boundaries, azeotropes, distillation regions, feasible products, and liquid-liquid regions. 2. Evaluation of laboratory data. Location and confirmation of saddle ternary azeotropes and a...

## Extractive Distillation

Introduction Extractive distillation is a partial vaporization process in the presence of a miscible, high-boiling, non-volatile massseparation agent, normally called the solvent, which is added to an azeotropic or nonazeotropic feed mixture to alter the volatilities of the key components without the formation of any additional azeotropes. Extractive distillation is used throughout the petrochemical- and chemical-processing industries for the separation of close-boiling, pinched, or azeotropic...

## Azeotropism

At low-to-moderate pressure ranges typical of most industrial applications, the fundamental composition relationship between the vapor and liquid phases in equilibrium can be expressed as a function of the total system pressure, the vapor pressure of each pure component, and the liquid-phase activity coefficient of each component i in the mixture In systems that exhibit ideal liquid-phase behavior, the activity coefficients, y , are equal to unity and Eq. 13-124 simplifies to Raoult's law. For...

## General Principles

Separation operations achieve their objective by the creation of two or more coexisting zones which differ in temperature, pressure, composition, and or phase state. Each molecular species in the mixture to be separated reacts in a unique way to differing environments offered by these zones. Consequently, as the system moves toward equilibrium, each species establishes a different concentration in each zone, and this results in a separation between the species. The separation operation called...

## Depriester Charts

FIG. 13-14 K values K y x in light-hydrocarbon systems. a Low-temperature range. DePriester, Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Sec. 7, 49,1 1953 . Preferred analytical correlations are less empirical in nature and most often are theoretically based on one of two exact thermodynamic formulations, as derived in Sec. 4. When a single pressure-volume-temperature PVT equation of state is applicable to both vapor and liquid phases, the formulation used is where the mixture fugacity coefficients lt t gt L for...

## Analytical Kvalue Correlations

The widespread availability and utilization of digital computers for distillation calculations have given impetus to the development of analytical expressions for K values. McWilliams Chem. Eng., 80 25 , 138 1973 presents a regression equation and accompanying regression coefficients that represent the DePriester charts of Fig. 13-14. Regression equations and coefficients for various versions of the GPA convergence-pressure charts are available from the GPA. FIG. 13-13 Vapor-liquid equilibrium...

## Rigorous Methods For Multicomponent Distillationtype Separations

Thiele-Geddes Stage-by-Stage Method for Simple Distillation 13-40 Example 3 Calculation of TG Equation-Tearing Procedures Using the Tridiagonal-Matrix Tridiagonal-Matrix BP Method for Example 4 Calculation of the BP Certain portions of this section draw heavily on the work of Buford D. Smith, editor of this section in the fifth edition. SR Method for Absorption and Example 5 Calculation of the SR Simultaneous-Correction Naphtali-Sandholm SC Example 6 Calculation of Naphtali-Sandholm SC Method...

## Residue Curve Maps And Distillation Region Diagrams

The simplest form of distillation involves boiling a multicomponent liquid mixture batchwise in a single-stage still pot. At any instant in time the vapor being generated and removed from the pot is assumed to be in equilibrium with the remaining liquid assumed to be perfectly mixed in the still. Because the vapor is richer in the more volatile components than the liquid, the composition and temperature of the liquid remaining in the still changes continuously over time and moves progressively...

## Ratebased Models

Although the widely used equilibrium-stage models for distillation, described above, have proved to be quite adequate for binary and close-boiling, ideal and near-ideal multicomponent vapor-liquid mixtures, their deficiencies for general multicomponent mixtures have long been recognized. Even Murphree Ind. Eng. Chem., 17, 747-750 and 960-964 1925 , who formulated the widely used plate efficiencies that carry his name, pointed out clearly their deficiencies for multicomponent mixtures and when...

## Equationtearing Procedures Using The Tridiagonalmatrix Algorithm

As seen earlier, the manual Thiele-Geddes method involves solving the equilibrium-stage equations one at a time. More powerful, flexible, and reliable computer programs are based on the application of sparse matrix methods for solving simultaneously all or at least some of the equations. For cases in which combined column feeds represent mixtures that boil within either a narrow range typical of many distillation operations or a wide range typical of absorbers and strippers and in which great...

## Graphical Kvalue Correlations

As discussed in Sec. 4, the K value of a species is a complex function of temperature, pressure, and equilibrium vapor- and liquid-phase compositions. However, for mixtures of compounds of similar molecular structure and size, the K value depends mainly on temperature and pressure. For example, several major graphical K-value correlations are available for light-hydrocarbon systems. The easiest to use are the DePriester charts Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Ser. 7, 49, 1 1953 , which cover 12...

## Enhanced Distillation

Residue Curve Maps and Distillation Region Applications of RCM and Extension to Batch Azeotropic Exploitation of Homogeneous Exploitation of Pressure Exploitation of Boundary Exploitation of Azeotropy and Liquid-Phase Immiscibility 13-73 Design and Operation of Azeotropic Distillation Columns 13-75 Extractive Solvent Effects in Extractive Extractive Distillation Design and Solvent Screening and Extractive Distillation by Salt Reactive Simulation, Modeling, and Design Mechanical Design and...

## Gilliland Correlation

FIG. 13-41 Comparison of rigorous calculations with Gilliland correlation. Henley and Seader, Equilibrium-Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1981 data of Van Winkle and Todd, Chem. Eng., 78 21 , 136 Sept. 20, 1971 data of Gilliland,, Elements of Fractional Distillation, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950 data of Brown and Martin, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., 35, 679 1939 . FIG. 13-41 Comparison of rigorous calculations with Gilliland correlation. Henley and...

## Pressure Control Condenser In Micro-positive Pressure Distillation

If the convergence criterion is met, compute values of L, from Eq. 13-74 and values of Q1 and QN from Eq. 13-72 . Otherwise, set k k 1 and repeat steps 7 to 14. Step 14 implies that if the calculations are not converged, values of Tj k computed in step 10 and values of Vj k computed in step 12 are used as values of the tear variables to initiate iteration k 1. This is the method of successive substitution, which may require a large number of iterations and or may result in oscillation....

## Bubble Point And Dew Point

For a given drum pressure and feed composition, the bubble- and dew-point temperatures bracket the temperature range of the equilibrium flash. At the bubble-point temperature, the total vapor pressure exerted by the mixture becomes equal to the confining drum pressure, and it follows that X y, 1.0 in the bubble formed. Since y, KiXi and since the xt's still equal the feed concentrations denoted by Zi's , calculation of the bubble-point temperature involves a trial-and-error search for the...

## Kremser Group Method

Starting with the classical method of Kremser op. cit. , approximate group methods of increasing complexity have been developed to calculate groups of equilibrium stages for a countercurrent cascade, such as is used in simple absorbers and strippers of the type depicted in Fig. 13-7 gt and d. However, none of these group methods can adequately account for stage temperatures that are considerably higher or lower than the two entering-stream temperatures for absorption and stripping respectively...

## Introduction

Some approximate calculation methods for the solution of multicom-ponent, multistage separation problems continue to serve useful purposes even though computers are available to provide more rigorous solutions. The available phase equilibrium and enthalpy data may not be accurate enough to justify the longer rigorous methods. Or in extensive design and optimization studies, a large number of cases can be worked quickly and cheaply by an approximate method to define roughly the optimum...

## Introduction To Extractive Distillation

Multistage distillation under continuous, steady-state operating conditions is widely used in practice to separate a variety of mixtures. Table 13-7, taken from the study of Mix, Dweck, Weinberg, and Armstrong Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. Symp. Ser. 76, 192, 10 1980 lists key components for 27 industrial distillation processes. The design of multiequi-librium-stage columns can be accomplished by graphical techniques when the feed mixture contains only two components. The x-y diagram McCabe and...

## Isothermal Flash

The calculation for a point on the flash curve that is intermediate between the bubble point and the dew point is referred to as an isothermal-flash calculation because T2 is specified. Except for an ideal binary mixture, procedures for calculating an isothermal flash are iterative. A popular method is the following due to Rachford and Rice J. Pet. Technol., 4 10 , sec. 1, p. 19, and sec. 2, p. 3 October 1952 . The component mole balance Fz, Vy, Lx, , phasedistribution relation K, y, xi , and...

## Adiabatic Flash

In Fig. 13-25, if P2 and the feed-stream conditions i.e., F, z, T1, P1 are known, then the calculation of T2, V, L, yt, and x, is referred to as an adiabatic flash. In addition to Eqs. 13-12 to 13-14 and the total mole balance, the following energy balance around both the valve and the flash drum combined must be included Taking a basis of F 1.0 mol and eliminating L with the total mole balance, Eq. 13-17 becomes f2 V T2 Hf- V HV - Hl - Hl 0 13-18 With T2 now unknown, Eq. 13-17 becomes f1 V T2...