Approach To Food Preparation

The CAC General Principles of Food Hygiene provide guidance on the basic general requirements that are essential to ensuring food safety as well as food suitability. WHO has adapted these principles to different settings (e.g., food service establishments, street food vendors, and households) and recommended specific hygienic measures for the preparation of food under such conditions.91213 Although these food hygiene principles are fundamental to achieving food safety, their application for...

The LAB

The LAB are a group of gram-positive, non-sporeforming, fermentative anaerobes that are often aerotolerant (Table 2-1). They produce most of their cellular energy as a result of the fermentation of sugars. In the case of hexoses, this can proceed by one of two pathways, providing a useful diagnostic feature as well as playing a critical role in their antimicrobial activity. Homofermenters ferment hexoses by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway to produce almost exclusively lactic acid heterofermenters...

In Preheated Substrate

With increasing scale of production, more sophisticated technical facilities, and higher investment and operational risks, the use of laboratory-selected and precultured starter cultures becomes a necessity. Because equipment for aseptic processing at a large production scale is extremely expensive, common procedures include pure culture maintenance and propagation under aseptic conditions (e.g., sterile laboratory and pilot fermentors). At production scale, the food ingredient to be fermented...

Glycosides In Food And Feed

Glycosides consist of one or more genins (ag-lycones) to which one or more mono- or oligosaccharides are linked. The glycosidic linkage(s) may differ (i.e., one differentiates between 0-, S-, and C-glycosides) (Figure 4-1). If the sugar part is a glucose moiety, it is called a glucoside. A number of different glycosides and oligosaccharides causing physiological effects (toxins) or reduced uptake or use of nutrients after ingestion are known in the plant kingdom. So Figure 4-1 (a) The general...

Diversity Of Fermented Foods

There is a wide variety of fermented foods worldwide. Various excellent reference books on fermented foods are available,5 40 45 as are source books on industrial aspects of food biotechnology, including food fermentation.23-33'39 Mention was made already of the various food ingredients that can be fermented, as well as the microorganisms and enzymes that are used in fermentations. In the strict sense, fermentation refers to a form of anaerobic energy metabolism. In the context of fermented...

Risks Associated With The Occurrence Of Toxic Glycosides In Different Commodities

Regarding toxins in food, the compounds that call for discussions in further detail are the cya-nogenic glycosides, but also the MAM glycosides, ptaquiloside, the saponins, the favism agents (vicine and convicine), and the glucosinolates. Although discussions concerning a toxicity of intact cyanogenic glycosides may be found, the literature at present concludes that known intoxication syndromes, whether acute or chronic, are mainly due to HCN that is formed from the compounds.235,236 A plant...

The Haccp System In Food Hygiene

Today, to achieve food safety, it is recognized that there is a need to apply measures of increased specificity Figure 3-1 . At a more general level, the CAC outlines the general principles of food hygiene. These principles lay the foundation for food hygiene. Second, more product-specific hygienic measures may be applied to focus better on issues that are relevant to specific commodities. These measures, also prescribed by the CAC, are described in specific codes of manufacturing or hygienic...

Info

Carpita Gibeaut

A mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and various peptidases with amylase and lipase as accompanying enzymes. Figure 1-3 Schematic representation of the structure of plant cell walls. Reproduced with permission from Voragen, A. G. J., Van den Broek, L. A. M. 1991 . Fruit juices. Biotechnological Innovations in Food Processing, pp. 187-210. Edited by Biotol Team. Oxford, UK Butterworth-Heinemann.44 Figure 1-3 Schematic representation of the structure of plant cell walls. Reproduced with...

References

Safety of industrial lactic acid bacteria. JBiotechnol 63,171-178. 2. Adams, M. R. amp Hall, C. J. 1988 . Growth inhibition of food-borne pathogens by lactic and acetic acids and their mixtures. IntJFood Sci Technol 23, 287-292. 3. Adams, M. R., Hartley, A. D. amp Cox, L. J. 1989 . Factors affecting the efficacy of washing procedures used in the production of prepared salads. Food Microbiol 6, 69-77. 4. Adams, M. R. amp Nicolaides, L. 1997 . Review of the sensitivity of...

Pasteurization

Brewers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or S. uvarum at approx 107 yeast cells per ml wort product young green beer Note Factors contributing to shelf life Lager beer has no shelf life unless it is kept anaerobic and refrigerated. Bottled lager beer derives its shelf life from pasteurization and the exclusion of air. Table 1-A-4 Food Group Cereals Product Name Wheat Mixed Grain Sourdough Bread Reference 38

Food Fermentation Components Food Ingredients

Food ingredients include the raw foods chosen for fermentation which can be of plant or animal origin. These foods contain a variety of nutrients for the consumer but also some of these nutrients will be required for the microbial growth and metabolism during the fermentation process. In order to enable microbial activity, sufficient water must be present. Consequently, water must be added in case the other ingredients are too dry. For several reasons, such as taste or preservation,...

Organization in Flow Diagram

A flow diagram is a pictorial scheme illustrating the sequence in which ingredients and unit operations are combined and providing data regarding processing conditions such as temperature, time, mass, pH, and so forth. Figure 1-7 illustrates this principle. Appendix 1-A provides flow diagrams for selected food fermentations. For each major food group, two commodities have been selected. These flow diagrams are not intended to provide recipes or exclusive methods of preparing the respective...