Effect of pressure on boiling points

The boiling points of liquids quoted in reference books refer to the values measured at a standard atmospheric pressure of 760 mm mercury. As we all know, atmospheric pressure changes, varying considerably from day-to-day as weather patterns change and cold or warm fronts cross the region. Atmospheric pressure also changes with elevation. Not everyone lives at sea level under a stable air pressure of 760 mm Hg so the following table will allow you to interpret any temperature readings you might...

The glass still

The glass still shown in Figure 7 and described in the following paragraphs is essentially the same as the hatstand model discussed above, but there are one or two innovations which make it particularly pleasing. All dimensions are given so you can take it along to a glassblower and he will know exactly how to make it for you. The column and stillhead are made from 38 mm O.D. glass tubing, joined by means of a 34 45 drip-tip standard taper joint. A teflon sleeve is placed between the male and...

Introduction

Many books are available to amateurs on the methods and equipment involved in making beer and wine, and such books can be found in abundance in most bookstores and in beer- and wine-making supply stores. However, when it comes to the use of a small still to produce distilled spirits it is no use looking in bookstores. To find books on this subject it is necessary to search the Internet for independent publishers, but then we run into another problem. The books which are found on the Internet...

The Fractionating Still

Fractionating Still

The purification of the crude beer produced from sugar and yeast is a 2-stage process, or even three in certain cases. The first stage is known as beer stripping and, as the name implies, is just a rapid and fairly rough method for separating most of the alcohol from the beer and leaving behind most of the water and the yeast. The volume of liquid after this first stage, a liquid known as high wine, is less than one-quarter of that with which we started. So if we started with 50 litres of beer...

Fire and explosions

This may sound a bit melodramatic but when you are dealing with a procedure for the first time, and know that alcohol is inflammable, you may wonder. Let's take the explosion issue first. At no time, from beginning to end, is there any pressure in the equipment used for distillation. It is always open to the atmosphere. Fully open. Completely open. You will see that this is so when you look at the equipment diagrams later on and read the description of the procedures involved. So don't worry...

Poisoning oneself

The belief that there is some inherent danger in distilling one's own spirits is widespread and is reinforced whenever the news media report that a number of people have been taken ill, or even died, as a result of drinking homemade spirits. People associate homemade spirits with distillation, with moon-shining, but in fact there is no danger whatsoever in drinking home distilled spirits, or even moonshine properly made. The danger lies in buying liquor from a bootlegger because in order to...

Simple distillation The pot still

First let's take a look at the simplest situation the events taking place in a pot still when beer is distilled. The vapour is richer than the liquid in the most volatile constituents, i.e. the ones with the lowest boiling points such as acetone and methanol in the above table. When they distil over they are referred to as the heads. There is no clear-cut separation of the various compounds so the heads will still be coming over when the ethanol starts to appear. Similarly, before all the...

Attachment to boiler

At the base of the column there is the problem of joining a glass column to the 3A pipe nipple on the boiler and you will require the services of a machinist to solve this problem for you. Glass-to-metal joints are always tricky, so four different arrangements are shown in Figures 8 a , b , c and Ball amp socket joint Compression joint FIGURE 8. ALTERNATIVE ATTACHMENTS - GLASS COLUMN TO BOILER d . In the first case a a teflon O-ring makes the seal between the base of the column and a brass...

Summary

In terms of ease of manufacture, the production of pure alcohol is a science, not an art, and results therefore can be guaranteed if the proper equipment is used and the correct procedures followed. There are no subtleties involved such as quality of grapes or the type of yeast used. The starting material can be corn, potatoes, grapes, wheat, rice, milk, molasses in fact anything which contains a fermentable sugar. One hardly even needs to worry about hygiene just add large amounts of bakers'...

Amateur distillation

It is understandable why a government would wish to put a stop to smuggling and moonshining for commercial purposes, that is to say in order to sell the product and avoid the payment of taxes, but why would there be a complete ban on distillation by amateurs, on a small scale and for their own use And why, commercially, should a distilled spirit attract a higher tax per unit of alcohol At the risk of being tediously repetitious it is worth reminding ourselves again that distillation is one of...

Beer and wine

Alcoholic beverages can be divided into two broad categories according to whether or not there is a distillation stage following fermentation. Beer and wine fall into the non-distilled category whereas whisky, rum, brandy, gin, etc. have all been distilled. The latter are often referred to as spirits or hard liquor. Simple distillation permits the removal of some of the more noxious congeners by discarding some of the first liquid to distil over the heads and the last the tails . The middle...

Alcoholic Beverages

All alcoholic beverages are made by fermenting a sugar solution with yeast, a process which converts the sugar to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol. Usually one does not start with a pure sugar but with fruit juices for wine, the starch in grains for beer and whisky, the starch in grain or potatoes for vodka, molasses for rum, etc. Over the centuries trial and error have shown that a bewildering variety of sugar sources can be exploited in this manner, even such an unlikely substance as milk...

Immersion heater

The optimum temperature for fermentation if one is thinking of speed rather than flavour is about 33 C. Fermentation itself generates some heat but probably insufficient to maintain this temperature, particularly if the room is cool. An external heat source, therefore, should be provided and since only 100 watts or so are required an immersion heater such as used in an aquarium is ideal. If it does not contain its own thermostat, or if you use a different type of heater, an ordinary light...

Table of Contents

Alcoholic Beverages Sources of fermentable Beer amp Distillation what is it Simple distillation pot stills Whisky, brandy, rum, Fractional distillation 3. Health amp Headaches amp Fire amp explosions 4. The Question Of Fermenter Fractionating still The boiler The column The still-head Offset design Mexican cactus 39 Linear design An advanced glass still The flavouring still Principles Procedure 7. Distillation Principles Procedures Beer-stripping Fractional distillation Collection Yield of...

Helen Zajchowski

Making pure ethyl alcohol at home is a satisfying and profitable hobby for those who live in countries where it is legal to do so. Do-it-yourself types, who currently enjoy making beer or wine, find it particularly interesting because it is a logical extension of both these activities. There is the same fermentation stage where sugar is turned into alcohol but then, instead of drinking the brew, it is subjected to a very rigorous purification process. This process is fractional distillation, a...