Drop Mechanics

An understanding of the performance of extraction equipment is furthered by an understanding of what may be going on inside individual drops. With the assumption of transfer of a solute A from a dispersed feed phase into a continuous solvent, as shown in Fig. 13, a concentration profile across the interface would appear to have a discontinuity (Fig. 14). The discontinuity is a consequence of the distribution coefficient, and reflects the general practice of choosing a solvent which has a...

Artificial Intelligence

A considerable amount of attention is being given to the use of various forms of artificial intelligence for the control of bioreactor systems. Two forms of systems are currently being explored. These are expert systems and neural networks. Expert systems combine stored knowledge and rules about a process with inference engines (forward and backward chaining algorithms) to choose a best or most reasonable approach among a large number of choices when no correct answer can be deduced and in some...

Activated Carbon

Activated carbon has long been used as an effective means of removing organics, chlorine, chlorates, other chlorine compounds and objectionable tastes and odors. The organics removed include pesticides, herbicides and industrial solvents for which activated carbon has diverse capacity. Typically, carbon filters are operated at a flow rate of 1 -2 gpm ft3 of activated carbon. Since chlorine is removed from water by the carbon, extra care is required from here on to protect against bioburden...

Air Water

Typical curve of K factor, power drawn with gas on versus power drawn with gas off, for various superficial gas velocities. Figure 26. Typical curve of K factor, power drawn with gas on versus power drawn with gas off, for various superficial gas velocities. Figure 27. Schematic of geyser height. Figure 27. Schematic of geyser height. Figure 28. Plot illustrating measurement of geyser height. Figure 28. Plot illustrating measurement of geyser height. Also, the 8-inch impeller with...

Waste Water Treatment Strategy

Different types of waste water streams are generated from various processes in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Treatment of these streams is not only ethically required for not polluting the waters of the nation, but USEPA and the states have mandated strict discharge standards that their plants must meet with their NPDES or equivalent permitting requirements. Waste water treatment can no longer be considered as a secondary issue in the plant's scheme of things, but must be...

Exhaust Gas Analysis

Deflection Ionised Co2

Much can be learned from the exchange of gases in the metabolic process such as 02, C02, N2, NH3, and ethanol. In fact, most of the predictive analysis is based upon such calculations as oxygen uptake rate, carbon dioxide exchange rate or respiratory quotient. This information is best obtained by a component material balance across the reactor. A key factor in determining this is the analysis of the bioreactor offgas and the best method for measuring this is with a mass spectrometer because of...

Fluid Shear Rates

Figure 20 illustrates flow pattern in the laminar flow region from a radial flat blade turbine. By using a velocity probe, the parabolic velocity distribution coming off the blades of the impeller is shown in Fig. 21. By taking the slope of the curve at any point, the shear rate may be calculated at that point. The maximum shear rate around the impeller periphery as well as the average shear rate around the impeller may also be calculated. An important concept is that one must multiply the...

Info

Reliable sensors are not available. Figure 6. Estimation of metabolic parameters using gateway sensor. Figure 6. Estimation of metabolic parameters using gateway sensor. The data analysis scheme of Fig. 6 includes the steady-state oxygen balance method and the carbon balancing method. In addition, the system can provide the oxygen supply conditions that relate to volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient kLa , oxidation-reduction potential ORP and degree of...

Growth Rate

When inoculating a fresh medium, the cells encounter an environmental shock, which results in a lag phase. The length of this phase depends upon the type of organism, the age and size of the inoculum, any changes in nutrient composition, pH and temperature. When presented with a new nutrient the cell adapts itself to its new environment and normally produces the required enzyme. Essentially all nutrients can limit the fermentation rate by being present in concentrations that are either too low...

Filtering Centrifuges

Ferrum Centrifuge Shaft Seal

The driving force for separation in a filtering centrifuge is centrifugal force, unlike filtration where pressure or vacuum is used. The basic principals of Poiseuilles' cake filtration equation can be applied by substituting P pressure with the stress or pressure induced by the bowl contents, which is a function of centrifugal acceleration. See Eq. 8. A wash can be introduced to fulfill different requirements 1. Remove original slurry liquid mother liquid 4. Displace mother liquor with another...

Energy Considerations For Evaporation System Design

Evaporation Mechanical Compression

The single largest variable cost factor in making a separation by evaporation is the cost of energy. If crude oil is the ultimate source of energy, the cost of over 126.67 per m3 20 per barrel is equivalent to more than 3.33 for 1 million kJ. Water has a latent heat of 480 kJ kg at 760 mm of mercury, absolute, so the energy required to evaporate 1 kg of water exceeds 0.16 cents. Therefore, the efficient utilization of energy is the most important consideration in evaluating which type of...

Pressureadded Centrifugation

It is more efficient to mechanically dewater solids than thermally, due to costly energy requirements. Filters such as pressure or vacuum units are used for solids liquid separation, providing high forces to drive the liquid through the cake. Recently, equipment designed to combine both centrifuga-tion and pressurization has lead to increased dewatering of solids beyond what either process would do alone. See Fig. 9. Figure 9. Inverting filter centrifuge with pressurization. Courtesy of Heinkel...

Fns3

Oslo Type Crystallizer

Figure 6. Oslo cooling crystallizer. One of the more important features of the Oslo type crystallizer is that the container for crystal growth has certain elements of design similar to all modes of operation evaporative, vacuum cooling, cooling . In the crystal growth container a supersaturated solution of uniform temperature and concentration is conducted upward through a dense fluidized bed of crystals. The crystals are kept fluidized by this upward flow...

Jt

Camflex Valve Symbol

Piping and Instrumentation Drawing of the cooling section of a continuous sterilizer. The hot section Fig. 5 is controlled by a cascade loop which is based on a selected pumping rate 150 gpm and sterilization temperature set in the TIC. Changes in the feed temperature are monitored at TT1 which will automatically override the steam supply to keep the temperature at set point. Steam flow rate is monitored by FE and flow is automatically compensated should a large draw down of steam...

Evaporator Types

Calandria Evaporator Design

Most evaporators consist of three main elements or parts a heating unit calandria , a region for liquid-vapor separation sometimes called a vapor head, flash chamber, or settling zone , and a structural body to house these elements and to separate the process and heating fluids. One simple way to classify evaporators is 1. Heating medium separated from evaporating liquid by tubular heating surfaces 2. Heating medium confined by coils, jackets, double walls, flat plates, etc. 3. Heating medium...

Trouble Shooting In A Fermentation Plant

The art of troubleshooting is acquired by an alert individual after much experience actually operating a fermentation department. There are electrical, instrumental, mechanical and other physical problems arising from time to time which must be solved. However, the usual source of trouble in a fermentation department is a foreign, or contaminating, microorganism or bacteriophage in the fermentation media. This results in one or more of the following problems 1. Inoculum cannot be used for the...

From Column Column

The steps of chromatographic separation are addition of the mixed solutes to the column, elution to effect separations, and removal of the separated solutes. Figure 2. Representation of the three phases involved in chromatographic separation. Figure 2. Representation of the three phases involved in chromatographic separation. The ratio of individual distribution coefficients is often used as a measure of the possibility of separating two solutes and is called the separation factor, a,...

Table 2 Cross Flow Filtration Key Advantages Process Goal Crossflow Filtration Deadend Filtration

Dead End And Crossflow Filtration

Ability to handle wide variations in particle size Ability lo handle wide variations in solids concentration Continuous concentration witli rccycle but may require diaHltration to overcome excessive lux loss at higher recovery Can minimize waste if handling low solids feed where cartridge disposal Is Infrequent Performance Is generally acceptable except in situations involving high solids or adsorptive fouling DEADEND FILTnATION CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION DEADEND FILTnATION CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION...

Fermentation Pilot Plant

Yujiro Harada, Kuniaki Sakata, Seiji Sato and Shinsaku Takayama The rapid development of biotechnology has impacted diverse sectors of the economy over the last several years. The industries most affected are the agricultural, fine chemical, food processing, marine, and pharmaceutical. In order for current biotechnology research to continue revolutionizing industries, new processes must be developed to transform current research into viable market products. Specifically, attention must be...

Feet Of Water Over The Sparger

Isentropic horsepower reduction by back pressure. Air sparger design of large fermenters is one of the least discussed topics of the fermentation industry. Most companies design their own air spargers. Some companies have designed and tried a wide variety of ideas. Agitator manufacturers insist that the air ring emit the air bubbles at the optimum radius of the first turbine. However, in air-agitated fermenters, the engineer must be creative to consider both the best mixing and...

Ion Exchange Operations

Ion Exchange And Backwash

The typical cycle of operations involving ion exchange resins include pretreatment of the resin and possibly of the feed solution loading the resin with the solutes to be adsorbed by contacting the resin with the feed solution and elution of the desired material from the resin. The scale of operation has ranged from analytical applications with a few milligrams of resin and microgram quantities of material to commercial production units containing several cubic meters of resin to produce metric...

Podbielniak Extractor

Podbielniak Extractor

Podbielniak centrifugal extractor. Figure 24. Podbielniak centrifugal extractor. The Podbielniak and Alfa Laval centrifugal extractors are essentially continuous differential contactors. The Westfalia and Robatel centrifugal extractors contain discrete mechanical stages, and flow from one to another is effected by spill over discs and skimmers according to usual centrifugal clarifier practice. As the number of discrete stages is increased, the allowable flow rates are proportionately...

Mixers And Impellers

Flat Blade Impeller

There is a complete range of flow and fluid shear relationships from any given impeller type. Three types of impellers are commonly used in the low viscosity region, propellers, Fig. 1 turbines, Fig. 2 and axial flow turbines, Fig. 3. Impellers used on small portable mixers shown in Fig. 4, are often inclined at an angle as well as being off-center to give a good top-to-bottom flow pattern in the system, Fig. 5. Large top-entering drives usually use either the axial flow turbine or the radial...

What Is Bayonet Tube

Cross Flow Filtration

Batch and continuous diafiltration process modes. 5.3 Single vs. Multistage Continuous System Single stage continuous configuration may not be economical for many applications since it operates at the highest concentration factor or lowest flux over most of the process duration. Multistage continuous systems on the other hand, can approximate the flux obtained in the true batch mode, depending on the number of stages. The concentrate from each stage becomes the feed to the next stage....

1

Mwco Curve Membrane Inorganic

PF - Plate and Frame SW - Spiral Wound PS - Pleated Sheet T - Tubular including wide channel FS - Flat Sheet HFF - Hollow Fine Fiber PF - Plate and Frame SW - Spiral Wound PS - Pleated Sheet T - Tubular including wide channel FS - Flat Sheet HFF - Hollow Fine Fiber Since the majority of UF membranes have dense surface layers, it is difficult to characterize them with a true pore size distribution. Therefore, polymeric UF membranes are described by their ability to retain or allow passage of...

How Does A Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Work

How Does Leaf Vacuum Work

The cylinder is divided into compartments like pieces of a pie see Fig 2 , and drainage pipes carry fluid from the cylinder surface to an internal manifold. Filter diameters range from three to twelve feet, with face lengths of one to twenty-four feet, and up to 1000 ft2 of filtration area. 5 J Filtration rates range from 5 GPH per square foot to 150 GPH per square foot. Moisture levels are, of course, dependent upon particle size distribution and tend to range from 25 to 75 by weight and cake...

Batch System

Figure 5 shows a simple batch system consisting of a feed tank, a membrane module and a feed pump which also serves as a recirculation pump. The recirculation pump maintains the desired cross-flow velocity over a certain range of transmembrane pressures depending on the type of pump and its characteristics centrifugal or positive displacement . The filtration continues until the final concentration or desired permeate recovery is achieved, unless the flux drops to an unacceptable level. For the...

Bioreactors and Culture Techniques for Microbial Processes

Current bioreactors are grouped into either culture vessels and reactors using biocatalysts e.g., immobilized enzymes microorganisms or plant and animal tissues. The latter is sometimes used to mean the bioreactor. Table 1 shows a number of aerobic fermentation systems which are schematically classified into i internal mechanical agitation reactors, ii external circulation reactors, and iii bubble column and air-lift loop reactors. This classification is based on both agitation and aeration as...

A

The acquisition of data and the estimation of state parameters on commercial scales will undoubtedly become increasingly significant. Unfortunately, the advanced control involving adaptive and optimized controls have not yet been sufficiently investigated in either the pilot or industrial scale. Adaptive control is of great importance for self-optimization of fermentation processes, even on a commercial scale, because in ordinary fermentation the process includes several variables regarding...