I s i 1 i 1 i i i M H H M i

Plants have drawn off a part of the' products from the bottom of the retort near the end of the distillation instead of distilling everything through the condenser. This material drawn from the bottom of the retort is naturally the least volatile portion of the products, the pitch. More recently a few retorts have been operated with the heat applied mostly at the sides and top, so that some of the high boiling oils could accumulate at the bottom along with the pitch and be drawn off as a heavy...

Info

It is not known in what countries the production listed under Germany-Austria is now located but it is believed that most of the crude products are manufactured in Czecho-Slovakia. Aside from these countries, Sweden, England, Japan, and France are known to have small wood distillation industries but accurate It is not known in what countries the production listed under Germany-Austria is now located but it is believed that most of the crude products are manufactured in Czecho-Slovakia. Aside...

Oc cit

Marked color changes that the end point is readily determined by the color.18 In a solution containing approximately 4.5 per cent methyl alcohol and 10 per cent acetic acid, there must be, in accordance with the equilibrium of the reversible reaction, a certain amount of methyl acetate. When the acetic acid is neutralized, the methyl acetate slowly hydrolyzes to methyl alcohol and acetic acid until equilibrium is again attained, the solution again becoming acid. If more lime is added the methyl...

The Steam Distillation and Solvent Extraction Process

This process has been in use for so short a time that it is not yet well standardized in details and very little literature on the subject is available. The steam distillation part of the process has, however, been studied experimentally.1 The theory of steam distillation of volatile oils outlined in Chapter IV applies in die removal of crude turpentine turpentine and pine oil from resinous wood by means of steam. There are, however, two additions that must be made to the principles previously...

Uses Of Rosin

Resinates of lead, manganese, cobalt and other metals, Waterproofing compounds insoluble rosin soaps . Emulsifiable oils. Lubricants for high speed tool work. Leather dressings and shoe polishes. Enamels used in ceramics resinates of heavy metals . Manufacture of certain varnishes and lacquers. Manufacture of plastic compositions, including Sealing waxes. Cores for foundry work. Rubber substitutes. Shoemaker's wax. Briquettes and fire kindlers. Artificial wood. Composition for...

The Decomposition Of Wood By Heat

In the vicinity of 280 C. the reaction became exothermic. The more complete and detailed work of Klason, von Heidenstam, and Norlin 8 confirmed the exothermic character of the reaction, determined the amount of heat given off during the exothermic stage and, by collecting and analyzing the products at different stages, gave a complete picture of the course of the reaction. A typical diagram of the relation between the temperatures inside and outside the charge and the amount of products is...

Refining Processes

The discussion of the refining processes from the standpoint of the chemistry involved will be taken up first according to the general commercial process of complete cooling of distillate as soon as it leaves the retort, resulting in the separation of the non-condensible gas from the liquid products, followed by settling the liquid products to separate the pyroligineous acid from the tar. Then other more complicated systems will be discussed. The condensation of vapors of volatile liquids when...

Acid Water

Flow Sheet of Hardwood Distillation Process. from the neutralized pyroligneous acid. This results in a considerable saving, since both the lime-lee and the alcohol still operations are replaced by a single distillation and a larger proportion of acetate liquor is left to be evaporated in the efficient multiple effect evaporators. In most wood distillation plants the refining of the wood alcohol is carried no further than the preparation of this concentrated crude with no attempt to...