Action of Koji Extract Upon Some Carbohydrates

The solution which is prepared by digesting koji in water possesses certain active properties which cause it to resemble in general character the aqueous solution of malt, so carefully experimented upon by Messrs. Brown and Heron. It is of interest and importance to compare the action of koji extract upon the principal carbohydrates in order to establish an identity or a difference between the two species of diastase. From the mode of production there is no reason to suppose that they will be...

Foreword

Here are a few notes concerning this electronically prepared document. What I did Because the original was brittle and brown, I xeroxed the entire document, often tweaking the brightness or contrast. I then scanned the document from the cleanest xerox copies using a flatbed scanner, I ran the pages through OCR software, ran a spell checker, and then manually read and edited problem areas. I lost most tables in scanning, and so re-typed these. I then scanned the figures, and copied them into the...

Preface

Lactic Acid Power Curve

Previous to the year 1878 no scientific account of the brewing of sake had appeared, the principal papers which had been published being a translation by Professor J.J. Hofmann, of Leyden, of an article from the Japanese Encylopaedia, 1714, and a paper in the transactions of the German Asiatic Society of Japan by Dr. Hofmann, then Professor in the Medical School of the University of Tokyo. In December, 1878, Mr. O. Korschelt published an elaborate paper on the subject in the same transactions,...

Figure 5 Curve showing action of koji extract on gelatinized starch at 1015C

From these experiments we may understand what occurs during the mashing operations in sake making. At first they are conducted at even a lower temperature than 4 C, and this is interesting because it shows that the activity of the diastase in koji is not destroyed at low temperatures, even at 0 C. At a higher temperature the reduction in the specific rotatory power of the solution goes on more rapidly, and although the sake brewer never uses temperatures so high as those of the succeeding...

Active Properties

In the presentation of sake the koji is added to the steamed rice and water, and the solution, mixed with the insoluble residue of starch and cellulose, then acts upon the steamed rice. To study this action more readily it is more convenient to make use of a filtered aqueous extract of koji, for it has been ascertained that the active property of the koji, the diastase, is dissolved out by contact with water. And first as to the nature of the solution. A sample of koji when powdered or rubbed...

Figure 3 Curve showing action of koji on maltose

50 c.c. of this solution were mixed with 50 c.c. of a solution of koji and heated to 45 C for 1-1 2 hour. After being diluted to 250 c.c. the solution contained 4.145 grams of solid matter in 250 c.c., and deducting 1.285 gram contained in the 50 cc of koji solution added, we get 2.86 grams of solids formed from the 50 c.c. of dextrin solution, instead of 2.78 grams originally present. After making allowance for the rotation caused by the koji solution, the specific rotatory power of the...

Filtration of Sake and Yield of Alcohol

At the end of the fermentation the mash is very thin and consists mainly of alcohol and water with a small quantity of the unaltered rice grains suspended in the liquid. The subsequent processes are essentially the same everywhere and it will not be necessary to refer in detail to the methods followed in different breweries. The separation of the liquid from the suspended matter is effected by the use of wooden press called fune, a sketch of which is given in Figure 1 on page 3. It consists of...

Figure 4 Curve showing the action of koji extract upon gelatinized starch at 410C

The second set of experiments was conducted at the same temperature, different proportions of koji and starch being used. The amounts of koji and starch used for the following table were 5 grams of starch to 20 grams of koji. Table 16 Action of Koji on Starch at 4-10 C Table 16 Action of Koji on Starch at 4-10 C Total starch in solution (koji deducted) In this series the same specific rotatory power, 100.4 is attained in 68 hours, which it took 120 hours in the former series to arrive at, and...

Introduction

It is probably impossible now to ascertain when the art of brewing first became known to the Japanese. Tradition ascribes its introduction to some emigrants from Korea about the end of the third century, who doubtless obtained the knowledge from China where it had long been practices. How improvements were introduced we can only surmise, but it is known that about the end of the 15th century, the two districts of Itami and Ikeda had established their superiority over all others, a position...

The Principal Process

In the chief fermentation process as carried out at Itami and Nishinomiya there are three stages, called respectively soye, naka, and shimai, although they do not differ from one another in any essential particular. In the Tokyo brewery it is not so easy to distinguish these stages, and it will, therefore, be most convenient to describe the former methods first, reserving the latter and the analyses of the product at different times until the others have been disposed of. At Itami the...

Clearing

The liquid which has passed through the press is turbid and requires clarification before being used. This is effected by collecting the sake in large tuns which have two holes near the bottom one above the other, and closed by means of plugs (see Figure 1). After the lapse of about 15 days the suspended matter has settled to the bottom, and the greater part of the clear liquid may then be drawn off by removing the upper plug, and collecting the liquid in proper vessels. The remainder is...

Action of Koji Extract Upon Gelatinized Starch

From the point of view of the sake brewer, the change which koji solution produces in the nature of starch is of the utmost importance, and it will on that account be needful to enter into somewhat minute details concerning its action under varying conditions of time and temperature. That a remarkable change does take place will be evident to any one who adds a few cubic centimeters of a filtered solution of koji to a quantity of thick starch paste, especially if the latter be at a temperature...

Heating

The clear sake so produced would not keep for more than a few days in the warm weather without being subjected to some further process. At Itani and at Nishinomiya the heating of the sake is carried out on the 88th night called hachiju-hachiya, which usually occurs between the 24 th and 25th of the fourth month of the old calendar. The operation is a very simple one. A large iron pan is built in the ground, so that the upper part is only about 5 or 6 inches above the surface on one side the...

Rice

The grain from which alcohol is produced in Japan is the same as that which forms the staple article of diet for all classes, vis. rice, and its cultivation employs the labor of the greater number of the population. According to the Official Catalogs of the Japanese Exhibits at Philadelphia in 1876, and at Paris in 1878, the total area of paddy land is 1,611,130 cho (3,947,268 acres), and the yield of rice amounts to 28,000,000 koku (138,964,000 bushels), giving an average yield of a little...

Figure 7 Curve showing action of koji extract on gelatinized starch at 45C

Blum Afstand Scharnieren

At a higher temperature, 60 C, the activity of the koji solution is very soon exhausted, as will be seen from the following results (Table 21), and from the curve in Figure 8. 10 grams of starch and 10 grams of koji were used. The number found at 15 minutes is doubtless incorrect. After half an hour had elapsed, and the specific rotatory power had diminished to 168 , the action appeared to cease, until a fresh addition of koji was made, when it fell at a similar rate, and for nearly the same...

Fermentation of the Mash

In the previous sections we have seen that the sugar formed by the action of the koji upon the starch of the rice grain undergoes fermentation, that is, is converted into alcohol, carbonic acid, and some other products in smaller quantity. It is now generally admitted that the production of these bodies is the result of the growth of some form of organism, which, in the majority of cases, is a species of the genus Saccharomyces. In beer brewing the yeast ferment is added to the wort after...

Finished Moto from Nishinomiya

The chemical changes which go on in the production of moto are sufficiently easily explained in general terms. During the first days, whilst the mixture is kept at a low temperature, the koji is acted upon by the water and the solution then attacks the starch according to the reactions already indicated. This results in the production of a saccharine and dextrinous liquid forming a suitable food for the ferment which subsequently establishes itself in the liquid on warming. How the ferment...

Preparation of Moto

The process of preparing sake followed in the large breweries of Itami and Nishi-nomiya is very nearly the same, and may be easily divided into distinct periods, but sake is also very frequently prepared in much smaller establishments, in which case, properly speaking, only two divisions can be noticed, viz. the preparation of moto, and the principal process. The chemical changes which occur will be very easily understood after the details which have been given in the preceding part, but it...

Preparation of Koji

Starch is a substance insoluble in water and incapable of undergoing fermentation directly, that is, of being converted into alcohol. In beer-making countries the conversion of the starch into a sugar from which alcohol can be produced is effected by the use of malt, a body formed by allowing the embryo of the barley grain to become partially developed, by which a change in the character of the grain occurs, as the result of which it becomes possessed of certain properties attributed to the...

Moto

In the preparation of moto steamed rice, koji, and water are used in proportions which differ slightly in different works. The term moto is used to express not only the product of this operation, but also a definite amount thus the workmen speak of one moto, two and a half moto, and so on. At Itami, the most famous district, the proportions for moto are Steamed rice 0.5 koku Koji 0.2 koku It may be remarked that the numbers indicating the mount of steamed rice and koji used refer, not to the...

Action Upon Maltose

O'Sullivan directed attention to the nature of the sugar formed when malt extract is made to act upon gelatinized starch, and his experiments conclusively established the existence of a new sugar, previously, however, pointed out by Dubrunfaut, which is now known as maltose. In composition it agrees with cane sugar, but differs from it in having a specific rotatory power of 150 , and in forming dextrose and not invert sugar when boiled with acids or otherwise hydrated....