Fermentation of the Mash

In the previous sections we have seen that the sugar formed by the action of the koji upon the starch of the rice grain undergoes fermentation, that is, is converted into alcohol, carbonic acid, and some other products in smaller quantity. It is now generally admitted that the production of these bodies is the result of the growth of some form of organism, which, in the majority of cases, is a species of the genus Saccharomyces. In beer brewing the yeast ferment is added to the wort after...

Finished Moto from Nishinomiya

The chemical changes which go on in the production of moto are sufficiently easily explained in general terms. During the first days, whilst the mixture is kept at a low temperature, the koji is acted upon by the water and the solution then attacks the starch according to the reactions already indicated. This results in the production of a saccharine and dextrinous liquid forming a suitable food for the ferment which subsequently establishes itself in the liquid on warming. How the ferment...

Preparation of Moto

The process of preparing sake followed in the large breweries of Itami and Nishi-nomiya is very nearly the same, and may be easily divided into distinct periods, but sake is also very frequently prepared in much smaller establishments, in which case, properly speaking, only two divisions can be noticed, viz. the preparation of moto, and the principal process. The chemical changes which occur will be very easily understood after the details which have been given in the preceding part, but it...

Preparation of Koji

Starch is a substance insoluble in water and incapable of undergoing fermentation directly, that is, of being converted into alcohol. In beer-making countries the conversion of the starch into a sugar from which alcohol can be produced is effected by the use of malt, a body formed by allowing the embryo of the barley grain to become partially developed, by which a change in the character of the grain occurs, as the result of which it becomes possessed of certain properties attributed to the...

Moto

In the preparation of moto steamed rice, koji, and water are used in proportions which differ slightly in different works. The term moto is used to express not only the product of this operation, but also a definite amount thus the workmen speak of one moto, two and a half moto, and so on. At Itami, the most famous district, the proportions for moto are Steamed rice 0.5 koku Koji 0.2 koku It may be remarked that the numbers indicating the mount of steamed rice and koji used refer, not to the...

Action Upon Maltose

O'Sullivan directed attention to the nature of the sugar formed when malt extract is made to act upon gelatinized starch, and his experiments conclusively established the existence of a new sugar, previously, however, pointed out by Dubrunfaut, which is now known as maltose. In composition it agrees with cane sugar, but differs from it in having a specific rotatory power of 150 , and in forming dextrose and not invert sugar when boiled with acids or otherwise hydrated....