B

The steep is a square cistern, sunk at one end of the malt barn, lined with stone, and of a sufficient size to hold the whole barley that is to be malted at a time. The barley is put into this cistern with the requisite quantity of pure water to cover it. It is laid as evenly as possible upon the floor of the cistern. Here it must remain at least forty hours but in Scotland, especially when the weather is cold, it is customary to allow it to remain much longer. We have seen barley steeped in...

Info

Population of Great Britain and Ireland. 7,000,000 10,000,000 14,000,000 21,000,000 29,000,000 3,500,000 3,700,000 3,800,000 3,600,000 5,000,000 The decrease in the consumption of-productions brewed and distilled from malted barley, has undoubtedly arisen from a variety of causes. 1*6, The increased use of tea and coffee since 1765, by all classes of society. 2d, The high duties imposed on malt and spirits during the wars of the French revolution and, lastly, The influence which knowledge and...

1

Of the English System of Ale-Brewing. Superiority of the English system of brewing General description of the method of conducting the process English malt liquor divided into classes Practical details of the process of the common brewers in the manufacture of Ale. 1. Malt Mashing Description of the mashing-machine, driven by hand Division of the worts to brew Ale of different strengths. Boiling the Wort Process of boiling to be regulated by the quantity of wort in the boiler Hop extract Aroma...

Chapter Ii

Of the Scottish System of Ale-Brewing. 1. Mashing Description of the process Temperature of the water and malt Sparging, or sprinkling, to obtain the quantity of worts required Description of the sparger Practical inquiry into the comparative advantage of mashing by the English and Scottish methods. 2. Boiling the Wort Process of boiling the worts investigated Divided into four actions, by which the strength of the worts are regulated, and the quantity of the future production of Ales...

Djc

No notice is taken of beer or ale in the Books of Moses from which it is probable that they were unknown till after the death of that legislator. All the ancient Greek writers agree in assigning the honour of the discovery of beer to the Egyptians, whose country, being annually inundated by the Nile, was not adapted to the cultivation of vines. Herodotus, who wrot about 450 years before the commencement of the Christian era, informs us that the Egyptians made their wine from barley, because...

H

From the preceding tables we see that the length of time which elapses before the fermentation reaches its acme, supposing this to be measured by the temperature, varies very considerably. The shortest in terval in the table is three days, and the longest nine days the average of the whole is very nearly six days, which is exactly the mean between the longest and the shortest times. If the reader will glance his eye over the tables, he will perceive that, in general, the higher the temperature...

Of Malting

It is always customary to convert barley into malt before employing it in the manufacture of ale. Not that this conversion is absolutely necessary, but that it adds considerable facility to the different processes of the brewer. The writer of this treatise has several times tried the experiment of making ale from unmalted barley, and found it perfectly practicable. Several precautions, however, are necessary in order to succeed. The water let upon the ground barley in the mash-tun must be...

Chapter Iv

Processes of brewing Specific gravity of malt. Mashing. Temperature of the water and malt when mixed in the mash-tun Formula for the calculation of the specific heat of the mixture after mashing. Worts. Observations on obtaining the strongest saccharine extract Heats of the Worts when they flow from the mash Constituents of wort specific gravity Formation of glucosin or starch-sugar. Boiling the Wort. Examples of boiling the wort from given quantities of malt Description of hops...

E

Heat of the whole, after the mashing, 150 so that the water has lost 32 of heat, while thev malt (its . temperature before mixture was 48 ) gained 102 . The weight of the water, reckoning it This would make the specific heat of the malt 0'6 > , which is probably considerably above the truth for, according to the experiments of Dr Crawford, the specific heat of barley is only 0*421 so that our supposition, that the mean temperature after mashing was only 150 , is not quite accurate. Were we to...

Explanation Op The Plates

Figs. 1 and 2, Plates I. and II., explain the arrangement of the utensils and machinery in a porter brewery, on the largest scale in which, however, it must be observed, that the elevation, fig. 1,' is in a great degree imaginary as to the plane upon which it is taken but the different vessels are arranged so as to explain their uses most readily, and at the same time to preserve, as nearly as possible, the relative positions which are usually assigned to each in works of this nature. The malt...

Practical Methods Of Brewing

The design of the following observations is to describe, in a plain and concise manner, the practical methods of brewing Scotch and English Ales. To convert barley into malt, and, by brewing, to extract ardent spirits from it by distillation, or to manufacture the various sorts ef ales, beer, and porter, must be considered complicated processes of chemistry. Each process, indeed, in these arts, is an experiment which turns out successful and profitable in proportion to the skill and economy...

Treatise On Brewing

We shall commence this treatise with a short view of the history of the art in the second chapter, we shall give an account of the different kinds of grain employed in the third, we shall treat of the process of malting in the fourth, of that of brewing and in the fifth, we shall give an account of the nature and properties of the different kinds of ale and beer manufactured by the brewer. The Explanation of the Plates will contain a description of the utensils and machinery used in a London...

Chapter V

Of the distinction of ale and beer. Porter Its origin Malt employed annually in Britain. Table I., Quantity of malt made and charged with duty in England and Wales, and in Scotland and Ireland, from the years 1833 to 1846. II. Amount of duties on malt and hops charged in the United Kingdom from 1843 to 1846. III. Number of licensed breweries in the United Kingdom, extent of licenses, and amount of duty thereon, in 1846 General remarks on the strength and attenuation of Beer and...

Of Brewing

Brewing consists of five successive processes, which are distinguished by the following names 1. Mashing 2. Boiling 3. Cooling 4. Fermenting 5. Cleansing. We shall afterwards give a description and view of the utensils employed in a large London porter brewery, where they have been carried to the greatest perfection. But we conceive it better to give a description of the processes themselves, in the first place, without referring them to any specific form of vessels observing only, that the...

Uye

Of the Nature of the Vinous Fermentation. Analysis of sugar by eminent chemists. Table of the composition of 100 parts of sugar by Gay-Lussac, Berzelius, and Prout. Examination of their Analyses By fermentation sugar is decomposed and converted into alcohol and carbonic acid Farther investigation of the analysis Proportions brought out approach very nearly the results obtained by Lavoisier and Th6nard. Analysis of starch-sugar or glucosin, in reference to the Treatise on Brewing. Table of...

P

The general consideration the first two examples, the proportion evaporated would have been still greater. When the wort is let out of the boiler into the cooler, the hops still remain, and, as they are soaked with wort, a considerable loss would be sustained if they were thrown away. Thus we found, in one instance, that 45 lbs. of hops retained half a barrel of wort after they were drained so completely that no more wort would drop out. In another case, 35 lbs. of hops retained in the same way...

Of The Practical Methods Of Brewing

The business of brewing is divided into two great branches The manufacture of ale by the common brewers of Great Britain and Ireland and of porter, which is chiefly confined to the brewers of London. The method of'brewing ale in Scotland differs from that pursued in England so much, that, in order to give a practical detail of the process, it will be necessary to divide the subject into separate heads, to afford a distinct description of the operations, so that the methods of working may be...

Chapter I

Of the English and Scotch methods of brewing Observations on the advantages of these modes of making Ales adapted to the tastes and customs of the inhabitants of the respective countries Preparation of malt for mashing Of hops, and method of preserving their qualities in stock Of water to be selected for brewing Remarks on the investigations of the processes of malting and brewing by Dr Thomson of Glasgow. 1. Discovery of the saccharometer. 2. Of the drying...

Of Ale And Beer

The English word ale is obviously the same with the Swedish word ol, which is applied to the same kind of fermented liquor while the word beer is synonymous with the German bier. These two words in Great Britain are applied to two liquors obtained by fermentation from the malt of barley but they differ from each other in several particulars. Ale is light-coloured, brisk, and sweetish, or at least free from bitter while beer is dark-coloured, bitter, and much less brisk. What is called porter in...

M

Lers, and increasing the national revenue by levying a duty on the productions of their establishments, with a protecting duty, at the same time, on all spirits and malt liquors imported from foreign countries. The first Act of Parliament which constitutes the Excise system was passed 12th Char. II., c. 23. By this act, thirty-six gallons was declared to be the measure of a barrel of beer, and thirty-two gallons that of a barrel of ale. The duty on beer and ale was enacted to be Is. 3d. on each...

Of The Kind Of Grain Used By Brewers

Every kind of grain, with perhaps hardly an exception, may be employed for the purposes of the brewer. In America it is not uncommon to make beer with the seeds of Indian corn or Zea mais. In order to convert it into malt, it is found necessary to bury it for some time under the ground and when germination lias made sufficient progress, it is dug up and kiln-dried. (See Philosophical Transactions, vol. xii., p. 1065.) Mr Mungo Park informs us, that, in Africa the negroes make beer from the...